Journal of Neuro-Oncology

, Volume 80, Issue 3, pp 261–274 | Cite as

Increased Expression of Thymidylate Synthetase (TS), Ubiquitin Specific Protease 10 (USP10) and Survivin is Associated with Poor Survival in Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM)

  • Jessica M. Grunda
  • L. Burton Nabors
  • Cheryl A. Palmer
  • David C. Chhieng
  • Adam Steg
  • Tom Mikkelsen
  • Robert B. Diasio
  • Kui Zhang
  • David Allison
  • William E. Grizzle
  • Wenquan Wang
  • G. Yancey Gillespie
  • Martin R. JohnsonEmail author
Laboratory Investigation



The limited success of empirically designed treatment paradigms for patients diagnosed with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) emphasizes the need for rationally designed treatment strategies based on the molecular profile of tumor samples and their correlation to clinical parameters.


In the current study, we utilize a novel real-time quantitative low density array (RTQ-LDA) to identify differentially expressed genes in de novo GBM tissues obtained from patients with distinctly different clinical outcomes. Total RNA was isolated from a cohort of 21 GBM specimens obtained from patients with either good (long-term survival (LTS) >36 months post surgery, n = 8) or poor (died of the disease (DOD) <24 months post surgery, n = 13) prognosis. Non-neoplastic brain tissue (n = 5) was obtained from patients who underwent surgery for refractory epilepsy. Demographic data was assessed for correlation with survival using Cox proportional hazards models. Sufficient RNA was available to use RTQ-LDA to quantify the expression of 93 independent genes in 5␣LTS, 4 DOD, and 5 non-neoplastic brain samples. The eight differentially expressed genes identified by RTQ-LDA in LTS versus DOD (P ≤ 0.050) were subsequently quantified in all 21 GBM samples by real-time quantitative PCR (RTQ).


A correlation between younger patients and good prognosis was demonstrated (P ≤ 0.05). The combination of RTQ-LDA and RTQ identified thymidylate synthetase (TS), ubiquitin specific protease 10 (USP10), and survivin as significantly over-expressed (P ≤ 0.050) in DOD compared to LTS patients. Ribonucleotide reductase subunit M2 (RRM2) was identified as tumor-specific, but not associated with survival.


Taken collectively, TS, USP10, survivin and RRM2 may be useful as prognostic indicators and/or in the development of rationally designed treatment protocols.


Glioblastoma multiforme Glioma Low density array Real-time quantitative PCR Ribonucleotide reductase subunit M2 Survival Survivin Thymidylate synthetase Ubiquitin specific protease 10 


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We thank Cecil R. Stockard for his excellent immunohistochemical assistance. Supported by American Cancer Society RSG-04-030-01-CCE and NCI P50 CA 097247.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jessica M. Grunda
    • 1
  • L. Burton Nabors
    • 2
  • Cheryl A. Palmer
    • 5
  • David C. Chhieng
    • 4
  • Adam Steg
    • 1
  • Tom Mikkelsen
    • 8
  • Robert B. Diasio
    • 1
  • Kui Zhang
    • 6
  • David Allison
    • 6
  • William E. Grizzle
    • 4
  • Wenquan Wang
    • 7
  • G. Yancey Gillespie
    • 3
  • Martin R. Johnson
    • 1
    • 9
    Email author
  1. 1.Departments of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Division of Clinical PharmacologyUniversity of Alabama at BirminghamBirminghamUSA
  2. 2.Department of Neurology, Division of Neuro-oncologyUniversity of Alabama at BirminghamBirminghamUSA
  3. 3.Department of Surgery, Division of NeurosurgeryUniversity of Alabama at BirminghamBirminghamUSA
  4. 4.Department of PathologyUniversity of Alabama at BirminghamBirminghamUSA
  5. 5.Department of Pathology, Division of NeuropathologyUniversity of Alabama at BirminghamBirminghamUSA
  6. 6.Department of BiostatisticsUniversity of Alabama at BirminghamBirminghamUSA
  7. 7.Department of Biostatistics, Biostatistics and Bioinformatics UnitUniversity of Alabama at BirminghamBirminghamUSA
  8. 8.Department of NeurosurgeryHenry Ford Hospital, Brain Tumor CenterDetroitUSA
  9. 9.Department of Clinical PharmacologyUniversity of Alabama at BirminghamBirminghamUSA

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