Neohelicon

, Volume 41, Issue 1, pp 27–41 | Cite as

“Every monument erected by a nation to its greats is erected to the nation itself”: Vodnik, Prešeren, and the nationalization of the Carniolan capital’s topography

Article
  • 85 Downloads

Abstract

This paper center-stages the canonization of two key figures of Slovenian poetry, each of the early nineteenth century: Valentin Vodnik and France Prešeren, and the placement of their statues in the public space of Ljubljana, capital of the Habsburg province of Carniola. Late in the nineteenth century, monuments to “cultural saints” became an important symbolic battlefield for the Slovenian national movement, striving for greater cultural and political autonomy. More broadly understood, Ljubljana turns out to be a paradigmatic example of how the literal battle for the nationalization of the city was fought through the occupation of public space by statues of “great men of literature.” The struggle, then, adopts semiotic significance. The Carniolan capital would eventually become a spiritual metropolis of “Slovenedom,” densely sown with far-reaching monumental symbols.

Keywords

Cultural nationalism Remembrance National poets Cultural saints Mnemotopes Topography Capital Literature and space 

References

  1. Cevc, E. (1977). Matevž Langus in Čopov ter Korytkov spomenik. Kronika, 25(1), 29–37.Google Scholar
  2. Cimperman, J. (1889). O slovesnem odkritji spomenika Valentinu Vodniku. Ljubljanski Zvon, 9(7), 445.Google Scholar
  3. Čopič, Š. (2000). Javni spomeniki v slovenskem kiparstvu prve polovice 20. stoletja. Ljubljana: Moderna galerija.Google Scholar
  4. Costa, E. H. (1859). Predgovor. Vorrede. In E. H. Costa (Ed.), Vodnikov spomenik. Vodnik–Album (pp. iv–xi). Ljubljana: Kleinmayr & Bamberg.Google Scholar
  5. Dović, M. (2007). Early literary representations of national history and the “Slovene cultural syndrome.” Primerjalna književnost 30 (special issue), 191–207.Google Scholar
  6. Dović, M. (2010). France Prešeren: A conquest of the Slovene Parnassus. In M. Cornis-Pope & J. Neubauer (Eds.), History of the literary cultures of East-Central Europe (Vol. 4, pp. 97–109). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.Google Scholar
  7. Dović, M. (2012). The canonization of cultural saints: An introduction. In S. Stojmenska-Elzeser & V. Martinovski (Eds.), Literary dislocations: 4th international REELC/ENCLS congress (pp. 557–569). Skopje: Institute of Macedonian literature.Google Scholar
  8. Funtek, A. (1889). Vodníku. Slavnostna kantata. Ljubljanski Zvon, 9(7), 385.Google Scholar
  9. Gspan, A. (1949). Prešernov grob v Kranju. Slavistična Revija, 2(1–2), 30–50.Google Scholar
  10. Gustin, J. (1889). Ganglov “Vodnik”. Ljubljanski Zvon, 9(1), 57–59.Google Scholar
  11. Helgason, J. K. (2011a). Relics and rituals: The canonization of cultural “saints” from a social perspective. Primerjalna književnost, 34(1), 165–189.Google Scholar
  12. Helgason, J. K. (2011b). The role of cultural saints in European nation states. In R. Sela-Sheffy & G. Toury (Eds.), Culture contacts and the making of cultures (pp. 245–254). Tel Aviv: Tel Aviv University.Google Scholar
  13. Hroch, M. (1993). From national movement to the fully-formed nation. The nation-building process in Europe. New Left Review I, 198, 3–20.Google Scholar
  14. Jezernik, B. (2010). Valentin Vodnik, “the first Slovenian poet”: The politics of interpretation. Slovene Studies, 32(1–2), 19–42.Google Scholar
  15. Juvan, M. (2004). Literary self-referentiality and the formation of the national literary canon: The topoi of Parnassus and Elysium in the Slovene poetry of the 18th and 19th centuries. Neohelicon, 31(1), 113–123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Koropeckyj, R. (2010). Adam Mickiewicz as a Polish national icon. In M. Cornis-Pope & J. Neubauer (Eds.), History of the literary cultures of East-Central Europe (Vol. 4, pp. 19–39). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Kos, J. (1997). Glejte ga, to je naš Prešeren. Ljubljana: Kiki Keram.Google Scholar
  18. Kuk, I. (1857). O spominu Vodnikovem. Kmetijske in Rokodelske Novice, 15(92), 367.Google Scholar
  19. Leerssen, J. (2006). Nationalism and the cultivation of culture. Nations and Nationalism, 12(4), 559–578.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Levec, F. (1898). Ob stoletnici Janeza Vesela Koseskega. In Knezova Knjižnica (Vol. 5, pp. 191–209). Ljubljana: Slovenska Matica.Google Scholar
  21. Malavašič, F. (1859). Slovesnosti, obhajane v spomin stoletnega rojstnega dneva Valentina Vodnika, očeta slovenskega pesništva. In E. H. Costa (Ed.), Vodnikov spomenik. Vodnik–Album (pp. 63–68). Ljubljana: Kleinmayr & Bamberg.Google Scholar
  22. Močnik, R. (1983). Raziskave za sociologijo književnosti. Ljubljana: DZS.Google Scholar
  23. Murko, M. (1891). Fr. Prešeren. Ljubljanski Zvon, 11(2), 81–87.Google Scholar
  24. Nemoianu, V. (2002). “National poets” in the Romantic age: Emergence and importance. In A. Esterhammer (Ed.), Romantic poetry (pp. 249–255). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Neubauer, J. (2010a). Figures of national poets. Introduction. In M. Cornis-Pope & J. Neubauer (Eds.), History of the literary cultures of East-Central Europe (Vol. 4, pp. 11–18). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Neubauer, J. (2010b). Petőfi: Self-fashioning, consecration, dismantling. In M. Cornis-Pope & J. Neubauer (Eds.), History of the literary cultures of East-Central Europe (Vol. 4, pp. 40–55). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Ozouf, M. (1991). Festivals and the French revolution. London: Harvard University Press. Trans. Alan Sheridan.Google Scholar
  28. Penčev, B. (2010). Hristo Botev and the necessity of national icons. In M. Cornis-Pope & J. Neubauer (Eds.), History of the literary cultures of East-Central Europe (Vol. 4, pp. 117–127). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.Google Scholar
  29. Pynsent, R. B. (2010). Mácha, the Czech national poet. In M. Cornis-Pope & J. Neubauer (Eds.), History of the literary cultures of East-Central Europe (Vol. 4, pp. 56–85). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Quinault, R. (1998). The cult of the centenary, c. 1784–1914. Historical Research, 71(176), 303–323.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Rigney, A. (2011). Embodied communities: Commemorating Robert Burns, 1859. Representations, 115(1), 71–101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Stritar, J. (1866). Preširnove poezije. In F. Prešeren (Ed.), Pesmi Franceta Preširna (pp. 11–46). Ljubljana: Wagner.Google Scholar
  33. Toman, L. (1850). O Prešernovim spominku. Kmetijske in Rokodelske Novice, 8(15), 61.Google Scholar
  34. Toman, L. (1857). Vodnikov stoletni rojstni dan 3. februarja 1858. Kmetijske in Rokodelske Novice, 15(89), 354.Google Scholar
  35. Toman, L. (1858). O Vodnikovem godu. Kmetijske in Rokodelske Novice, 16(4), 29.Google Scholar
  36. Trstenjak, D. (1858). Novoletnica. Kmetijske in Rokodelske Novice, 16(1), 1.Google Scholar
  37. Vodnik, V. (1988). Zbrano delo. Ljubljana: DZS.Google Scholar
  38. Vošnjak, J. (1982). Spomini. Ljubljana: Slovenska Matica.Google Scholar
  39. Wiesthaler, F. (1889). Slavnostni govor ob odkritji Vodnikovega spomenika v Ljubljani dne 30 junija 1889. Ljubljanski Zvon, 9(7), 386–392.Google Scholar
  40. Žargi, M. (1990). Železarna na Dvoru in Prešernov nagrobnik v Kranju. Kronika, 38(3), 108–113.Google Scholar
  41. Zbašnik, F. (anon.). (1905). Odkritje Prešernovega spomenika. Ljubljanski Zvon 25(11), 636–639.Google Scholar
  42. Žitko, S. (1996). Po sledeh časa. Spomeniki v Sloveniji 1800–1914. Ljubljana: Debora.Google Scholar
  43. Žvanut, M. (1988). Rojstna hiša Valentina Vodnika. Maribor: Obzorja.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.ZRC SAZU Institute of Slovenian Literature and Literary StudiesLjubljanaSlovenia

Personalised recommendations