Advertisement

New Forests

, Volume 48, Issue 2, pp 263–274 | Cite as

Genetic diversity and differentiation of yellowwood [Cladrastis kentukea (Dum.Cours.) Rudd] growing in the wild and in planted populations outside the natural range

  • Nicholas LaBonteEmail author
  • Jadelys Tonos
  • Colleen Hartel
  • Keith E. Woeste
Article

Abstract

Yellowwood (Cladrastis kentukea) grows in small, widely scattered populations in the wild, but is also a popular ornamental tree that thrives when planted in urban areas outside its natural range. Since the small native populations of yellowwood in several states are considered at risk of extirpation, the cultivated population could serve as an ex situ repository of yellowwood genetic diversity that could be used to restore lost local populations of the species. The potential value of cultivated yellowwood for conservation depends on the genetic diversity among cultivated trees compared to natural populations. Using nuclear microsatellite markers, we genotyped 180 yellowwoods from natural populations in Indiana, Missouri, Arkansas, and Kentucky, along with 61 trees from urban parks and landscapes in Indiana, Ohio, and Missouri. We found that, even when statistics were adjusted based on population size, the urban “population” had higher genetic diversity than any of the wild populations sampled, indicating that commercially-grown yellowwood is most likely a mixture of genotypes from isolated wild populations. We observed strong genetic differentiation among wild populations, and evidence for inbreeding in at least one of the wild populations.

Keywords

Ex situ conservation Urban forest Landscape genetics Fabaceae 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The Nature Conservancy provided funding for the work described in this paper. The authors would like to thank Megan Simmons for her help with lab work and genotyping. The authors would also like to thank all those who helped us find sampling sites in Indiana, Kentucky, and Arkansas, and all those who mailed us yellowwood samples from Missouri and Ohio.

References

  1. Andrianasolo DN, Davis AP, Razafinarivo NJ, Hamon S, Rakotomalala J-J, Sabatier S-A, Hamon P (2013) High genetic diversity of in situ and ex situ populations of Madagascan coffee species: further implications for the management of coffee genetic resources. Tree Genet Genomes 9:1295–1312CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Brunet J, Zalapa J, Guries R (2016) Conservation of genetic diversity in slippery elm (Ulmus rubra) in Wisconsin despite the devastating impact of Dutch elm disease. Conserv Genet 17(5):1001–1010CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Burczyk J, DiFazio SP, Adams WT (2004) Gene flow in forest trees: how far do genes really travel? For Genet 11(3–4):179–192Google Scholar
  4. Campbell CS, Alice LA, Wright WA (1999) Comparisons of within-population genetic variation in sexual and agamospermous Amerlanchier (Rosaceae) using RAPD markers. Plant Syst Evol 215:157–167CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Chang C-S, Bongarten B, Hamrick J (1998) Genetic structure of natural populations of black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) at Coweeta, North Carolina. J Plant Res 111(1):17–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Christe C, Kozlowski G, Frey D, Fazan L, Betrisey S, Pirintsos S, Gratzfeld J, Naciri Y (2014) Do living ex situ collections capture the genetic variation of wild populations? A molecular analysis of two relict tree species, Zelkova abelica and Zelkova carpinifolia. Biodivers Conserv 23:2945–2959CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Cibrian-Jaramillo A, Hird A, Oleas N, Ma H, Meerow AW, Francisco-Ortega J, Griffith MP (2013) What is the conservation value of a plant in a botanic garden? Using indicators to improve management of ex situ collections. Bot Rev 79:559–577CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Doyle JJ, Doyle JL (1987) A rapid DNA isolation procedure for small quantities of fresh leaf tissue. Phytochem Bull 19:11–15Google Scholar
  9. Dumroese RK, Williams MI, Stanturf JA, St. Clair JB (2015) Considerations for restoring temperate forests of tomorrow: forest restoration, assisted migration, and bioengineering. New For 465:947–964CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Earl DA, vonHoldt BM (2012) STRUCTURE HARVESTER: a website and program for visualizing STRUCTURE output and implementing the Evanno method. Conserv Genet Resour 4(2):359–361CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Evanno G, Regnault S, Goudet J (2005) Detecting the number of clusters of individuals using the software STRUCTURE: a simulation study. Mol Ecol 14(8):2611–2620CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Gilkison VA (2013) Comparisons of genetic diversity among disjunct populations of Magnolia tripetala. Western Kentucky University Honors College Capstone Experience/Thesis Projects. Paper 423. http://digitalcommons.wku.edu/stu_hon_theses/423
  13. Griffith MP, Calonje M, Meerow AW, Tut F, Kramer AT, Hird A, Magellan TM, Husby CE (2015) Can a botanic garden cycad collection capture the genetic diversity in a wild population? Int J Plant Sci 176(1):1–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Hadziabdic D, Fitzpatrick BM, Wang X, Wadl PA, Rinehart TA, Ownley BH, Windham MT, Trigiano RN (2010) Analysis of genetic diversity in flowering dogwood natural stands using microsatellites: the effects of dogwood anthracnose. Genetica 138(9):1047–1057CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Hamrick JL, Godt MJW (1996) Effects of life history traits on genetic diversity in plant species. Philos Trans Royal Soc B Biol Sci 351(1345):1291–1298CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Havens K, Vitt P, Maunder M, Guerrant EO Jr, Dixon K (2006) Ex Situ plant conservation and beyond. Bioscience 56(6):525–531CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Hill SR (2007) Conservation assessment for yellowwood (Cladrastis kentukea (Dum. Cours.) Rudd) INHS Technical Report 2007 (28), 7 May 2007, p 33Google Scholar
  18. Hubisz MJ, Falush D, Stephens M, Pritchard JK (2009) Inferring weak population structure with the assistance of sample group information. Mol Ecol Resour 9:1322–1332CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  19. Kalinowski ST (2005) HP-Rare: a computer program for performing rarefaction on measures of allelic diversity. Mol Ecol Notes 5:187–189CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Kamm U, Rotach P, Gugerli F, Siroky M, Edwards P, Holderegger R (2009) Frequent long-distance gene flow in a rare temperate forest tree (Sorbus domestica) at the landscape scale. Heredity 103:476–482CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Kikuchi S, Isagi Y (2002) Microsatellite genetic variation in small and isolated populations of Magnolia sieboldii ssp. japonica. Heredity 88:313–321CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Koressaar T, Remm M (2007) Enhancements and modifications of primer design program Primer3. Bioinformatics 23(10):1289–1291CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Krauss SL, Sinclair EA, Hobbs RJ (2013) An ecological genetic delinieation of local seed-source provenance for ecological restoration. Ecol Evol 3(7):2138–2149CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  24. Kubisiak TL, Roberds JH (2005) Genetic structure of natural populations based on neutral DNA markers. In: Steiner KC, Carlson JE (eds) Proceedings of conference on restoration of American chestnut to forest landsGoogle Scholar
  25. Leopold DJ, McComb WC, Muller RN (1998) Trees of the central hardwood forests of North America. Timber Press, Portland. ISBN 0-88192-406-7Google Scholar
  26. Marquardt PE, Echt CS, Epperson BK, Pubanz DM (2007) Genetic structure, diversity, and inbreeding of eastern white pine under different management conditions. Can J Forest Res 37:2652–2662CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Nason JD, Herre EA, Hamrick JL (1998) The breeding structure of a tropical keystone plant resource. Nature 391:685–687CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Parks A, Jenkins M, Ostry M, Zhao P, Woeste K (2014) Biotic and abiotic factors affecting the genetic structure and diversity of butternut in the southern Appalachian Mountains, USA. Tree Genet Genomes 10:541–544CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Peakall R, Smouse PE (2012) GenAlEx 6.5: genetic analysis in Excel. Population genetic software for teaching and research—an update. Bioinformatics 28:2537–2539CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  30. Peattie DC (1950) A natural history of trees of eastern and central North America. Houghton Mifflin, Boston, p 1950Google Scholar
  31. Rasmussen KK, Kollmann J (2008) Low genetic diversity in small peripheral populations of a rare European tree (Sorbus torminalis) dominated by clonal reproduction. Conserv Genet 9:1533–1539CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Rodger JG, Johnson SD (2013) Self-pollination and inbreeding depression in Acacia dealbata: Can selfing promote invasion in trees? S Afr J Bot 88:252–259CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Ross-Davis A, Ostry M, Woeste KE (2008) Genetic diversity of butternut (Juglans cinerea) and implications for conservation. Can J Forest Res 38(4):899–907CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Schuelke M (2000) An economic method for the fluorescent labeling of PCR fragments. Nat Biotechnol 18:233–234CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Victory ER, Glaubitz JC, Rhodes OE Jr, Woeste KE (2006) Genetic homogeneity in Juglans nigra (Juglandaceae) at nuclear microsatellites. Am J Bot 93(1):118–126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Ward M, Dick CW, Gribel R, Lowe AJ (2005) To self, or not to self… a review of outcrossing and pollen-mediated gene flow in neotropical trees. Heredity 95:246–254CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht (outside the USA) 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nicholas LaBonte
    • 1
    Email author
  • Jadelys Tonos
    • 2
  • Colleen Hartel
    • 3
  • Keith E. Woeste
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Forestry and Natural ResourcesPurdue UniversityWest LafayetteUSA
  2. 2.BioSciences DepartmentRice UniversityHoustonUSA
  3. 3.The Ohio State University School of Environment and Natural ResourcesColumbusUSA
  4. 4.USDA Forest Service Hardwood Tree Improvement and Regeneration Center at Purdue UniversityWest LafayetteUSA

Personalised recommendations