New Forests

, Volume 43, Issue 5–6, pp 543–560 | Cite as

Ecosystem services from forest restoration: thinking ahead

  • Lorenzo Ciccarese
  • Anders Mattsson
  • Davide Pettenella
Article

Abstract

Global deforestation and forest degradation have led to massive loss of biodiversity and decline of ecosystem services. Against this prospect, it is important not only to protect, but also to restore forest ecosystems. The paper analyzes the current and future role of the restoration of forests and degraded lands starting with the definition of various techniques, scales and objectives of forest restoration. Three key motivations for and targets of forest restoration are then discussed: forest biodiversity protection, biomass production, climate change mitigation and adaptation. The paper also briefly discusses three tools of increasing relevance for supporting forest restoration policies: the development of forest nursery techniques and the improvement of quality of forest reproductive material, the use of standard and certification tools, and financing of restoration investments, including projects aimed at reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation. We conclude by making some final remarks on the future challenges of forest restoration policies.

Keywords

Ecosystem services Forest restoration Bioenergy Climate change Planting stock production Economics 

References

  1. Adger WN, Agrawal S, Mirza MMQ et al (2007) Assessment of adaptation practices, options, constraints and capacity. In: Parry ML, Canziani OF, Palutikof JP, van der Linden PJ, Hanson CE (eds) Climate change 2007: impacts, adaptation and vulnerability. Contribution of working group II to the fourth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 717–743Google Scholar
  2. Aerts R, Honnay O (2011) Forest restoration, biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. BMC Ecol 11–29. doi:10.1186/1472-6785-11-29
  3. Barrow E, Clarke J, Grundy I et al (2002) Analysis of stakeholder power and responsibilities in community involvement in forest management in eastern and southern Africa. Forest and social perspectives in conservation (9). NRR-IUCN Eastern Africa Programme, NairobiGoogle Scholar
  4. Bass S, Nussbaum R, Speechly H, Morrison E (1996) Paper farming: the role of plantations in the sustainable paper cycle. The International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED), LondonGoogle Scholar
  5. Beringer T, Lucht W, Schaohoff S (2011) Bioenergy production potential of global biomass plantations under environmental and agricultural constraints. GCB Bioenergy 3:299–312CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Blaser J, Sabogal C (2002) Management strategies for degraded landscapes. Draft guidelines for the restoration of degraded primary forests, the management of secondary forests and the rehabilitation of degraded forest land in tropical regions. Draft report prepared on behalf of ITTO as basis for deliberations of the Expert Panel, BernGoogle Scholar
  7. Brown C (2000) The global outlook for future wood supply from forest plantations. Global forest products outlook study working paper series. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, RomeGoogle Scholar
  8. Butchart SHM, Walpole M, Collen B et al (2010) Global biodiversity: indicators of recent declines. Science 328:1164–1168PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Cairns J, Heckman JR (1996) Restoration ecology: the state of an emerging field. Annu Rev Energy Environ 21:167–189CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Campbell A, Kapos V, Scharlemann JPC et al (2009) Review of the literature on the links between biodiversity and climate change: impacts, adaptation and mitigation, technical series 42. Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity, MontrealGoogle Scholar
  11. Canadell JG, Raupach MR (2008) Managing forests for climate change mitigation. Science 320:1456–1457PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Chazdon RL (2008) Beyond deforestation: restoring forests and ecosystem services on degraded lands. Science 320:1458–1460PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Cherubini F, Hammer Strømman A (2011) Life cycle assessment of bioenergy systems. State of the art and future challenges. Bioresour Technol 102:437–451PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Chomitz KM (2007) At loggerheads? Agricultural expansion, poverty reduction, and environment in the tropical forests. The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development/The World Bank, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  15. Chum H, Faaij A, Moreira J et al (2011) Bioenergy. In: Edenhofer O, Pichs-Madruga R, Sokona Y, Seyboth K, Matschoss P, Kadner S, Zwickel T, Eickemeier P, Hansen G, Schlömer S, von Stechow C (eds) IPCC special report on renewable energy sources and climate change mitigation. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 209–332CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Ciccarese L, Brown S, Schlamadinger B (2005) Carbon sequestration through restoration of temperate and boreal forests. In: Stunturf J, Madsen P (eds) restoration of temperate and boreal forests. CRC Press/Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton, pp 111–120Google Scholar
  17. Dare M, Schirmer J, Vanclay F (2011) Does forest certification enhance community engagement in Australian plantation management? For Policy and Econ 13:328–337CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. De Pourc K, Thomas E, Van Damme P (2009) Indigenous community-based forestry in the Bolivian lowlands: some basic challenges for certification. Int For Rev 11:12–26Google Scholar
  19. Diaz S, Hector A, Wardle DA (2009) Incorporating biodiversity in climate change mitigation initiatives. In: Naeem S, Bunker DE, Hector A (eds) Biodiversity, ecosystem functioning, and human wellbeing—an ecological and economic perspective. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp 149–166CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. EEA—European Environment Agency (2011) Greenhouse gas emission trends and projections in Europe 2011. Tracking progress towards Kyoto and 2020 targets. EEA report no 4/2011. Publications Office of the European Union,Luxembourg. http://www.eea.europa.eu/publications/ghg-trends-and-projections-2011. Accessed 30 Apr 2012
  21. Engel S, Pagiola S, Wunder S (2008) Designing payments for environmental services in theory and practice: an overview of the issues. Ecol Econ 65:663–674CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Fagan KC, Pywell RF, Bullock JM, Marrs H (2008) Do restored calcareous grasslands on former arable fields resemble ancient targets? The effect of time, methods and environment on outcomes. J Appl Ecol 4:1293–1303CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. FAO (2005) Microfinance and forest-based small-scale enterprises. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, RomeGoogle Scholar
  24. FAO (2009) State of the world’s forests 2009. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, RomeGoogle Scholar
  25. FAO (2010) Global forest resources assessment. Main report, forestry paper 163. Food and Agriculture Organization to the United Nations, RomeGoogle Scholar
  26. FAO (2011) State of the world’s forests 2011. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, RomeGoogle Scholar
  27. Fargione J, Hill J, Tilman D, Polasky S, Hawthorne P (2008) Land clearing and the biofuel carbon debt. Science 319:1235–1238PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Ganz DJ, Durst PB (2003) Assisted natural regeneration: an overview. In: Dugan PC, Durst PB, Ganz DJ, McKenzie PJ (eds) Advancing assisted natural regeneration (ANR) in Asia and the Pacific. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific, Bangkok, pp 1–4Google Scholar
  29. Gilmour DA, San NV, Tsechalicha X (2000) Rehabilitation of degraded forest ecosystems in Cambodia, Lao PDR, Thailand and Vietnam: an overview. IUCN-Asia, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  30. Griscoma HP, Ashton MS (2011) Restoration of dry tropical forests in Central America: a review of pattern and process. For Ecol Manag 261:1564–1579CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Grossnickle SC (2005) Importance of root growth in overcoming planting stress. New For 30:273–294CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Haines RJ (1994) Biotechnology in forest tree improvement: research directions and priorities. Unasylva 45:46–52Google Scholar
  33. Hall R, Romijn J (2010) Getting to the roots. Underlying causes of deforestation and forest degradation, and drivers of forest restoration, by the global forest coalition, December 2010. p 41Google Scholar
  34. Hall JS, Ashton MS, Garen EJ, Jose S (2011) The ecology and ecosystem services of native trees: implications for reforestation and land restoration in Mesoamerica. For Ecol Manag 261:1553–1557CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Hannrup B, Jansson G, Danell Ö (2009) Comparing gain and optimum test size from progeny testing and phenotypic selection in Pinus sylvestris (L.). Can J For Res 37:1227–1235CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Harrington CA (1999) Forests planted for ecosystem restoration or conservation. New For 17:175–190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Hickey GM, Innes JL, Kozak RA et al (2006) Monitoring and information reporting for sustainable forest management: an inter-jurisdictional comparison of soft law standards. For Policy Econ 9:297–315CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Holl KD, Aide TM (2011) When and where to actively restore ecosystems? For Ecol Manag 261:1558–1563CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Holvoet B, Muys B (2004) Sustainable forest management worldwide: a comparative assessment of standards. Int For Rev 6:99–122Google Scholar
  40. Innes J, Joyce L, Kellomaki M et al (2009) Management for adaptation. In: Seppäla R, Buck A, Katila P (eds) Adaptation of forests and people to climate change, IUFRO world series 22. International Union of Forest Research Organizations, Vienna, pp 135–169Google Scholar
  41. Kanowski PJ, McDermott CL, Cashore BW (2011) Implementing REDD+: lessons from analysis of forest governance. Environ Sci Policy 14:111–117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Kolström M, Lindner M, Vilén T et al (2011) Reviewing the science and implementation of climate change adaptation measures in European forestry. Forests 2:961–982. doi:10.3390/f2040961 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Laestadius L, Saint-Laurent C, Minnemeyer S, Potapov P (2011) A world of opportunity: the world’s forests from a restoration perspective. The global partnership on forest landscape restoration, World Resources Institute, South Dakota State University and the International Union for the Conservation of Nature. http://pdf.wri.org/world_of_opportunity_brochure_2011-09.pdf. Accessed 31 April 2012
  44. Lambin EF, Meyfroidt P (2011) Global land use change, economic globalization, and the looming land scarcity. Proc Natl Acad Sci 108:3465–3472PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. MacNamara S, Tinh VT, Erskine PD et al (2006) Rehabilitating degraded forest land in central Vietnam with mixed native species plantings. For Ecol Manag 233:358–365CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Mattsson A (1997) Predicting field performance using plant quality assessment. New For 13:227–252CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Mattsson A, Radoglou K, Kostopoulou P et al (2010) Use of innovative technology for the production of high-quality forest regeneration materials. Scand J For Res 1:1–7Google Scholar
  48. MEA—Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (2005) Ecosystems and human well-being: biodiversity synthesis. World Resources Institute, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  49. Minnemeyer S, Laestadius L, Sizer N et al (2011) Assessing the potential for forest landscape restoration. Global partnership on forest landscape restoration. World Resources Institute, South Dakota State University, International Union for Conservation of Nature. p 5Google Scholar
  50. Miyawaki A (1999) Creative ecology: restoration of native forests by native trees. Plant Biotechnol 16:15–25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Nabuurs GJ, Masera O, Andrasko K et al (2007) Forestry. In: Metz B, Davidson OR, Bosch PR, Dave R, Meyer L (eds) Climate change 2007: mitigation. Contribution of working group III to the fourth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 541–584Google Scholar
  52. Naeem S, Thompson LJ, Lawler SP et al (1994) Declining biodiversity can alter the performance of ecosystems. Nature 368:734–737CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Neeff T, Ashford L, Calvert J et al. (2009) The forest carbon offsetting survey. Ecosecurities 32Google Scholar
  54. Norris K (2012) Biodiversity in the context of ecosystem services: the applied need for systems approaches. Phil Trans R Soc B 367:163–169PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Nussbaum R, Gray I, Higman S (2003) Modular implementation and verification (MIV): a toolkit for the phased application of forest management standards and certification. ProForest, Oxford. http://assets.panda.org/downloads/mivtoolkit.pdf. Accessed 30 Apr 2012
  56. Pan Y, Birdsey RA, Fang J et al (2011) A large and persistent carbon sink in the world’s forests. Science 333:988–993PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Parrotta JA, Knowles OH (2001) Restoring tropical forests on lands mined for bauxite: examples from the Brazilian Amazon. Ecol Eng 17:219–239CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Peters-Stanley M, Hamilton K, Marcello T, Sjardin M (2011) Back to the future. State of the voluntary carbon markets 2011. A report by Ecosystem Marketplace & Bloomberg New Energy Finance, New York, p 78Google Scholar
  59. Potapov P, Yaroshenko A, Turubanova S et al (2008) Mapping the world’s intact forest landscapes by remote sensing. Ecol Soc 13:51. http://www.ecologyandsociety.org/vol13/iss2/art51/. Accessed 30 Apr 2012Google Scholar
  60. Ræbild A, Larsen AS, Jensen JS et al (2011) Advances in domestication of indigenous fruit trees in the West African Sahel. New For 41:297–315CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Raunikar R, Buongiorno J, Turner JA, Shushuai Zhu (2010) Global outlook for wood and forests with the bioenergy demand implied by scenarios of the intergovernmental panel on climate change. J For Policy Econ 12:48–56CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Ravindranath NH (2007) Mitigation and adaptation synergy in the forest sector. Mitig Adapt Strateg Glob Chang 12:843–853CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Reich PB (2011) Biogeochemistry: taking stock of forest carbon. Nat Clim Chang 1:346–347CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Rey Benayas JM, Newton AC, Diaz A, Bullock JM (2009) Enhancement of biodiversity and ecosystem services by ecological restoration: a meta-analysis. Science 325:1121–1124PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Roberts G, Parrotta J, Wreford A (2009a) Current adaptation measures and policies. In: Seppäla R, Buck A, Katila P (eds) Adaptation of forests and people to climate change—a global assessment report. IUFRO world series volume 22. International Union of Forest Research Organizations, Helsinki, pp 123–134Google Scholar
  66. Roberts L, Stone R, Sugden A (2009b) The rise of restoration ecology. Science 325:555PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Sala OE, Chapin FS, Armesto JJ et al (2000) Global biodiversity scenarios for the year 2100. Science 287:1770–1774PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Schlamadinger B, Bird N, Johns T et al (2007) A synopsis of land use, land-use change and forestry (LULUCF) under the Kyoto protocol and Marrakech accords. Environ Sci Policy 10:271–282CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Seppäla R, Buck A, Katila P (2009) Adaptation of forests and people to climate change. International Union of Forest Research Organizations (IUFRO), HelsinkiGoogle Scholar
  70. Shono K, Cadaweng EA, Durst PB (2007) Application of assisted natural regeneration to restore degraded tropical forestlands restoration. Ecology 15:620–626Google Scholar
  71. Stanturf JA, Madsen P (2005) What is forest restoration? In: Stanturf JA, Madsen P (eds) Restoration of boreal and temperate forests. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp 3–11Google Scholar
  72. TEEB (2010) The economics of ecosystems and biodiversity: mainstreaming the economics of nature: a synthesis of the approach, conclusions and recommendations of TEEB. Progress Press, MaltaGoogle Scholar
  73. TNC (2011) Forest conservation: responsible trade forest certification and the nature conservancy. http://www.nature.org/ourinitiatives/habitats/forests/howwework/responsible-forest-trade-forest-certification.xml. Accessed 30 Apr 2012
  74. UNEP (2011) Towards a green economy: pathways to sustainable development and poverty eradication. A synthesis for policy makers. http://www.unep.org/greeneconomy/Portals/88/documents/ger/GER_synthesis_en.pdf. Accessed 30 Apr 2012
  75. Valentine J, Clifton-Brown J, Hastings A, Robson P, Allison G, Smith P (2012) Food vs. fuel: the use of land for lignocellulosic ‘next generation’ energy crops that minimize competition with primary food production. GCB Bioenergy 4:1–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. van der Werf GR, Morton DC, De Fries RS, Olivier JGJ, Kasibhatla PS, Jackson RB, Collatz GJ, Randerson JT (2009) CO2 emissions from forest loss. Nat Geosci 2:737–738CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Vance ED (2010) Gap analysis for forest productivity research investments. J For 108:161–162Google Scholar
  78. Vance ED, Maguire DA, Zalesny RS (2010) Research strategies for increasing productivity of intensively managed forest plantations. J For 108:183–192Google Scholar
  79. Wagner MR, Block WM, Geils BW, Wenger KF (2000) Restoring ecology. A new forest management paradigm, or another merit badge for foresters? J For 98:22–27Google Scholar
  80. Wang J, Ren H, Yang L, Li D (2011) Factors influencing establishment by direct seeding of indigenous tree species in typical plantations and shrubland in South China. New For 1:19–33. doi:10.1007/s11056-010-9234-8W CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Weng Y, Park YS, Lindgren D (2012) Unequal clonal deployment improves genetic gains at constant diversity levels for clonal forestry. Tree Genet Genomes 8:77–85CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. White A, Bull GQ, Maginnis S (2006) Subsidies for industrial plantations: turning controversy into opportunity. Arbor Vitae 31:15Google Scholar
  83. Wunder S (2007) The efficiency of payments for environmental services in tropical conservation. Conserv Biol 21:48–58PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lorenzo Ciccarese
    • 1
  • Anders Mattsson
    • 2
  • Davide Pettenella
    • 3
  1. 1.Nature Conservation DepartmentItalian Institute for Environmental Protection and ResearchRomeItaly
  2. 2.Department of Forest and Wood TechnologyDalarna UniversityFalunSweden
  3. 3.Land, Environment, Agriculture and Forestry DepartmentUniversity of PaduaLegnaro PDItaly

Personalised recommendations