Advertisement

New Forests

, Volume 43, Issue 5–6, pp 711–738 | Cite as

Why seedlings survive: influence of plant attributes

  • Steven C. Grossnickle
Article

Abstract

Seedling survival and successful forest restoration involves many silvicultural practices. One important aspect of a successful forest restoration program is planting quality seedlings with high survival capability. Thus the nursery needs to create seedlings with plant attributes that allow for the best chance of success once a seedling is field planted. Since the mid-twentieth century, research foresters have critically examined plant attributes that confer improved seedling survival to field site conditions. This review describes the value of commonly measured seedling quality material (i.e. shoot height, stem diameter, root mass, shoot to root ratio, drought resistance, mineral nutrient status) and performance (i.e. freezing tolerance and root growth) plant attributes defined as important in answering the question of why seedlings survive after planting. Desirable levels of these plant attributes can increase the speed with which seedlings overcome planting stress, become ‘coupled’ to the forest restoration site, thereby ensuring successful seedling establishment. Although planting seedlings with these desirable plant attributes does not guarantee high survival rates; planting seedlings with desirable plant attributes increases chances for survival after field planting.

Keywords

Seedling survival Forest restoration Morphological attributes Drought resistance Freezing tolerance Seedling nutrition Root growth capability 

Notes

Acknowledgments

I thank Dr. Steve Colombo for the wide ranging discussions that lead to the initial structure and focus of this paper. I also thank Drs. John Mexal and Dave South, and the Editor-in-Chief and three anonymous reviewers whose review of draft versions of this manuscript kept me on topic and within context of the published literature.

References

  1. Abrams MD (1988) Sources of variation in osmotic potentials with special reference to North American tree species. For Sci 34:1030–1046Google Scholar
  2. Andivia E, Fernandez M, Vázquez-Piqué J (2011) Autumn fertilization of Quercus ilex ssp. ballota (Desf.) Samp. nursery seedlings: effects on morpho-physiology and field performance. Ann For Sci 68:543–553CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Andivia E, Márquez-García B, Vázquez-Piqué J, Córdoba F, Fernandez M (2012) Autumn fertilization with nitrogen improves nutritional status, cold hardiness and oxidative stress response of Holm oak (Quercus ilex ssp. ballota (Desf.) Samp.) nursery seedlings. Trees 26:311–320CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Armson KA, Sadreika V (1979) Forest nursery soil management and related practices. Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Toronto, ONGoogle Scholar
  5. Arnold MA, Struve DK (1989) Growing green ash and red oak in CuCO3-treated containers increases root regeneration and shoot growth following transplant. J Am Soc Hort Sci 114:402–406Google Scholar
  6. Arnott JT (1981) Survival and growth of bullet, styroplug and bareroot seedlings on mid-elevation sites in coastal British Columbia. For Chron 57:65–70Google Scholar
  7. Arnott JT, Grossnickle SC, Puttonen P, Mitchell AK, Folk RS (1994) Influence of nursery culture on growth, cold hardiness and drought resistance of yellow cypress. Can J For Res 23:2537–2547CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bacon GJ, Bachelard EP (1978) The influence of nursery conditioning treatments on some physiological responses of recently transplanted seedlings of Pinus caribaea Mor. var. honduriensis B. and G. Aust For Res 8:171–183Google Scholar
  9. Baer N, Ronco F, Barney CW, Baer NW (1977) Effects of watering, shading and size of stock on survival of planted lodgepole pine. USDA Forest Service Res Note RM-347Google Scholar
  10. Baldwin VC, Barney CW (1976) Leaf water potential in planted ponderosa and lodgepole pines. For Sci 22:344–350Google Scholar
  11. Barnett JP, McGilvray JM (1974) Copper screen controls root growth and increases survival on containerized southern pine seedlings. Tree Planters’ Notes 25:11–12Google Scholar
  12. Barnett JP, McGilvray JM (1993) Performance of container and bareroot loblolly pine seedlings on bottomlands in South Carolina. South J Appl For 17:80–83Google Scholar
  13. Bayley AD, Kietzka JW (1997) Stock quality and field performance of Pinus patula seedlings produced under two nursery growing regimes during seven different nursery production periods. New For 13:341–356CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Becker CA, Mroz GD, Fuller LG (1987) The effects of plant moisture stress on red pine (Pinus resinosa) seedling growth and establishment. Can J For Res 17:813–820CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Beikircher B, Florineth F, Mayr S (2010) Restoration of rocky slopes based on planted gabions and use of drought-preconditioned woody specis. Ecol Eng 36:421–426CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Benzian B, Brown RM, Freeman SCR (1974) Effect of late-season topdressing of N (and K) applied to conifer transplants in the nursery on their survival and growth on British forest sites. Forestry 47:153–184CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Bergquist J, Örlander G (1998) Browsing damage by roe deer on Norway spruce seedlings planted on clearcuts of different ages: 2. Effect of seedling vigour. For Ecol Manage 105:295–302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Bernier PY (1992) Soil texture influences seedling water stress in more ways than one. Tree Planters’ Notes 43:39–42Google Scholar
  19. Bernier PY, Lamhamedi MS, Simpson DG (1995a) Shoot:root ratio is of limited use in evaluating the quality of container conifer stock. Tree Planters’ Notes 46:102–106Google Scholar
  20. Bernier PY, Stewart JD, Gonzalez A (1995b) Effects of the physical properties of sphagnum peat on water stress in containerized Picea mariana seedlings under simulated field conditions. Scand J For Res 10:184–189CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Biel C, Savé R, Habrouk A, Espelta JM, Retana J (2004) Effects of restricted watering and CO2 enrichment in the morphology and performance after transplanting of nursery-grown Pinus nigra seedlings. HortScience 39:535–540Google Scholar
  22. Bigras FJ, Ryyppo A, Linderstrom A, Stattin E (2001) Cold acclimation and deacclimation of shoots and roots of conifer seedlings. In: Bigras FJ, Colombo SJ (eds) Conifer cold hardiness. Kluwer, The Netherlands, pp 57–88Google Scholar
  23. Binder WD, Scagel RK, Krumlik GJ (1988) Root growth potential: facts, myths, value? USDA Forest Service Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-167, pp 111–118Google Scholar
  24. Binkley D (1986) Forest nutrition management. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  25. Birchler TM, Rose R, Haase DL (2001) Fall fertilization with N and K: effects on Douglas-fir seedlings quality and performance. West J Appl For 16:71–79Google Scholar
  26. Blake TJ, Sutton RF (1987) Variation in water relations of black spruce stock types planted in Ontario. Tree Physiol 3:331–344PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Blake J, Zaerr J, Hee S (1979) Controlled moisture stress to improve cold hardiness and morphology of Douglas-fir seedlings. For Sci 25:576–582Google Scholar
  28. Blake JL, Teeter LD, South DB (1989) Analysis of economic benefits from increasing uniformity in Douglas-fir nursery stock. In: Mason WL, Deans JD, Thompson S (eds) Producing uniform conifer planting stock, vol 26, pp 251–262 (for suppl)Google Scholar
  29. Boivin JR, Salifu KF, Timmer VR (2004) Late season fertilization of Picea mariana seedlings: intensive loading and outplanting response on greenhouse bioassays. Ann For Sci 61:737–745CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Boyer JN, South DB (1987) Excessive seedling height, high shoot-to-root ratio and benomyl dip reduce survival of stored loblolly pine seedlings. Tree Planters’ Notes 37:19–21Google Scholar
  31. Brissette JC, Roberts TC (1984) Seedling size and lifting date effects on root growth potential of loblolly pine from two Arkansas nurseries. Tree Planters’ Notes 35:34–38Google Scholar
  32. Brix H, van den Driessche R (1974) Mineral nutrition of container-grown tree seedlings. In: Tinus RW, Stein WI, Balmer WE (eds) Proceedings of the North American containerized forest tree seedling symposium. Great Plains Ag. Council Publ. No. 68, pp 77–84Google Scholar
  33. Burdett AN (1987) Understanding root growth capacity: theoretical considerations in assessing planting stock quality by means of root growth tests. Can J For Res 17:768–775CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Burdett AN (1990) Physiological processes in plantation establishment and the development of specifications for forest planting stock. Can J For Res 20:415–427CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Burdett AN, Martin PAF (1982) Chemical root pruning of coniferous seedlings. HortScience 17:622–624Google Scholar
  36. Burdett AN, Simpson DG, Thompson CF (1983) Root development and plantation establishment success. Plant Soil 71:103–110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Burdett AN, Herring LJ, Thompson CF (1984) Early growth of planted spruce. Can J For Res 14:644–651CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Burney OT, Jacobs DF (2011) Ungulate herbivory of regenerating conifers in relation to foliar nutrition and terpenoid production. For Ecol Manage 262:1834–1845CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Burr KE (1990) The target seedling concept: bud dormancy and cold-hardiness. In: Rose R, Campbell SJ, Landis TD (eds) Target seedling symposium: proceedings of the western forest nursery associations. USDA Forest Service Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-200, pp 79–90Google Scholar
  40. Buxton GF, Cyr DR, Dumbroff EB (1985) Physiological responses of three northern conifers to rapid and slow induction of moisture stress. Can J Bot 63:1171–1176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Calmé S, Margolis HA, Bigras FJ (1993) Influence of cultural practices on the relationship between frost tolerance and water content of containerized black spruce, white spruce, and jack pine seedlings. Can J For Res 23:503–511CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Carlson WC (1986) Root system considerations in the quality of loblolly pine seedlings. South J Appl For 10:87–92Google Scholar
  43. Chambers JL, Hinckley TM, Cox GS, Metcalf CL, Aslin RG (1985) Boundary-line analysis and models of leaf conductance for four oak-hickory forest species. For Sci 31:437–450Google Scholar
  44. Chamshama SAO, Hall JB (1987) Effects of nursery treatments on Eucalyptus camaldulensis field establishment and early growth at Mafiga, Morogoro, Tanzania. For Ecol Manage 21:91–108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Chirino E, Vilagrosa A, Hernández EI, Matoc A, Vallejoa VR (2008) Effects of deep container on morpho-fuctional characteristics and root colonization in Quercus suber L. seedlings for reforestation in Mediterranean climate. For Ecol Manage 256:779–785CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Christersson L (1972) The transpiration rate of unhardened, hardened, and dehardened seedlings of spruce and pine. Physiol Plant 26:258–263Google Scholar
  47. Cleary BD, Greaves RD, Hermann RK (eds) (1978a) Regenerating Oregon’s forests: a guide for the regeneration forester. Oregon State University Extension Service, Corvallis, ORGoogle Scholar
  48. Cleary BD, Greaves RD, Owsten PW (1978b) Seedlings. In: Cleary BD, Greaves RD, Hermann RK (eds) Regenerating Oregon’s forests: a guide for the regeneration forester. Oregon State University Extension Service, Corvallis, OR, pp 63–97Google Scholar
  49. Clemens J, Jones PG (1978) Modification of drought resistance by water stress conditioning in Acacia and Eucalyptus. J Exp Bot 29:895–904CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Close DC, McArthur C, Pietrzykowski E, Fitzgerald H, Paterson S (2004) Evaluating effects of nursery and post-planting nutrient regimes on leaf chemistry and browsing of eucalypt seedlings in plantations. For Ecol Manage 200:101–112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Close DC, Bail I, Hunter S, Beadle CL (2005) Effects of exponential nutrient-loading on morphological and nitrogen characteristics and on after planting performance of Eucalyptus globulus seedlings. For Ecol Manage 205:397–403CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Colombo SJ (1987) Changes in osmotic potential, cell elasticity, and turgor relationships of 2nd-year black spruce container seedlings. Can J For Res 17:365–369CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Colombo SJ, Menzies MI, O’Reilly C (2001) Influence of nursery cultural practices on cold hardiness of coniferous forest tree seedlings. In: Bigras FJ, Colombo SJ (eds) Conifer cold hardiness. Kluwer, The Netherlands, pp 223–252Google Scholar
  54. Colombo SJ, Glerum C, Webb DP (2003) Daylength, temperature and fertilization effects on desiccation resistance, cold hardiness and root growth potential of Picea mariana seedlings. Ann For Sci 60:307–317CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Cuesta B, Vega J, Villar-Salvador P, Rey-Benayas JM (2010a) Root growth dynamics of allepo pine (Pinus halipensis Mill.) seedlings in relation to shoot elongation, plant size and tissue nitrogen concentration. Trees 24:899–908CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Cuesta B, Vega J, Villar-Salvador P, Puértolas J, Jacobs DF, Rey-Benayas JM (2010b) Why do large, nitrogen rich seedlings better resist stressful transplanting conditions? A physiological analysis in two contrasting Mediterranean forests. For Ecol Manage 20:71–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. D’Aoust AL, Cameron SE (1982) The effects of dormancy induction, low temperature and moisture stress on cold hardening of containerized black spruce seedlings. In: Scarrett JB, Glerum C, Plexman CA (eds) Proceedings of the Canadian containerized tree seedling symposium. Can. For. Serv. Great Lakes For. Cent. COJFRC Symp. Proc. O-P-10, pp 153–161Google Scholar
  58. Davis AD, Jacobs DF (2005) Quantifying root system quality of nursery seedlings and relationship to outplanting performance. New For 30:295–311CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Day RJ, Skoupy J (1971) Moisture storage capacity and post-planting patterns of moisture movement from seedling containers. Can J For Res 1:151–158CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. del Campo AD, Navarro RM, Hermoso J, Ibáńez AJ (2007) Relationship between root growth potential and field performance in Aleppo pine. Ann For Sci 64:541–548CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. del Campo AD, Navarro RM, Ceacero CJ (2010) Seedling quality and field performance of commercial stocklots of containerized holm oak (Quercus ilex) in Mediterranean Spain: an approach for establishing a quality standard. New For 39:19–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Dierauf TD, Chandler LA, Hixson DL (1992) Stripping of lateral roots from loblolly pine seedlings during lifting—effect on field performance. Virginia Dept. For. Occ. Rep. 105Google Scholar
  63. Dixon RK, Garrett HE, Cox GS, Johnson PS, Sander IL (1981) Container- and nursery-grown black oak seedlings inoculated with Pisolithus tinctorius: growth and ectomycorrhizal development following outplanting on an Ozark clear-cut. Can J For Res 11:492–496CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Dixon RK, Pallardy SG, Garrett HE, Cox GS (1983) Comparative water relations of container-grown and bare-root ectomycorrhizal and nonmycorrhizal Quercus velutina seedlings. Can J Bot 61:1559–1565CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Dumroese KR (2000) Changes in interior Douglas-fir root development in containers after copper and auxin treatments. West J Appl For 15:213–216Google Scholar
  66. Duryea ML (1984) Nursery cultural practices: impacts on seedling quality. In: Duryea ML, Landis TD (eds) Forest nursery manual: production of bareroot seedlings. Martinus Nijhoff/Dr. W. Junk Publishers, The Hague, pp 143–164CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Duryea ML, Dougherty PM (eds) (1991) Forest regeneration manual. Kluwer, DordrechtGoogle Scholar
  68. Duryea ML, McClain KM (1984) Altering seedling physiology to improve reforestation success. Corvallis, OR. In: Duryea ML, Brown GH (eds) Seedling physiology and reforestation success: proceedings of the physiology working group technical session. Martinus Nijhoff/Dr. W. Junk Publishers, Boston, pp 77–114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Faulkner R (1953) Early observations on the root development of one-year-old Corsican pine seedlings following root pruning. Scott For 7:23–26Google Scholar
  70. Feret RP, Kreh RE (1985) Seedling root growth potential as an indicator of loblolly pine field performance. For Sci 31:1005–1011Google Scholar
  71. Floistad IS, Kohmann K (2004) Influence of nutrient supply spring frost hardiness and time of bud break in Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) seedlings. New For 27:1–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Foiles MW, Curtis JD (1973) Regeneration of ponderosa pine in the northern Rocky Mountain-Intermountain region. USDA Forest Service Res. Paper INT-145, 45 ppGoogle Scholar
  73. Folk RS, Grossnickle SC, Major JE, Arnott JT (1994) Influence of nursery culture on western red cedar. II. Freezing tolerance of fall-planted seedlings and morphological development of fall- and spring-planted seedlings. New For 8:231–247CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Fuchigami LH, Nee CC (1987) Degree growth stage model and rest-breaking mechanisms in temperate woody perennials. HortScience 22:836–845Google Scholar
  75. Généré B, Garriou D (1999) Stock quality and field performance of Douglas-fir seedlings under varying degrees of water stress. Ann For Sci 56:501–510CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Gleason JF, Duryea M, Rose R, Atkinson M (1990) Nursery and field fertilization of 2+0 ponderosa pine seedlings: the effect on morphology, physiology and field performance. Can J For Res 20:1766–1772CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Grossnickle SC (2000) Ecophysiology of northern spruce species: the performance of planted seedlings. NRC Research Press, OttawaGoogle Scholar
  78. Grossnickle SC (2005a) Importance of root growth in overcoming planting stress. New For 30:273–294CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Grossnickle SC (2005b) Seedling size and reforestation success. How big is big enough? In: Colombo SJ (Compiler) The thin green line: a symposium on the state-of-the-art in reforestation. Ont. For. Res. Inst., Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources. For. Res. Info. Paper 160, pp 138–144Google Scholar
  80. Grossnickle SC, Arnott JT (1992) Gas exchange response of western hemlock seedlings from various dormancy induction treatments to reforestation site environmental conditions. For Ecol Manage 49:177–193CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Grossnickle SC, Blake TJ (1987) Comparison of water relation patterns for newly planted bare-root and container jack pine and black spruce seedlings on boreal cut-over sites. New For 1:101–116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Grossnickle SC, Folk RS (2003) Spring versus summer spruce stocktypes of western Canada: nursery development and field performance. West J Appl For 18:267–275Google Scholar
  83. Grossnickle SC, Folk RS (2007) Field performance potential of a somatic interior spruce seedlot. New For 34:51–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Grossnickle SC, Major JE (1994) Interior spruce seedlings compared to emblings produced from somatic embryogenesis. III. Physiological response and morphological development on a reforestation site. Can J For Res 24:1397–1407CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Grossnickle SC, Reid CPP (1984) Water relations of Engelmann spruce seedlings on a high-elevation mine site: an example of how reclamation techniques can alter microclimate and edaphic conditions. Reclam Reveg Res 3:199–221Google Scholar
  86. Grossnickle SC, Arnott JT, Major JE, Tschaplinski TJ (1991a) Influence of dormancy induction treatment on western hemlock seedlings. 1) Seedling development and stock quality assessment. Can J For Res 21:164–174CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Grossnickle SC, Major JE, Arnott JT, LeMay VM (1991b) Stock quality assessment through an integrated approach. New For 5:77–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Grossnickle SC, Arnott JT, Major JE (1991c) Influence of dormancy induction treatments on western hemlock seedlings. 2) Physiological and morphological response during the first growing season on a reforestation site. Can J For Res 21:175–185CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Guehl JM, Aussenac G, Kaushal P (1989) The effects of transplanting stress on photosynthesis, stomatal conductance and leaf water potential in Cedrus atlantica: role of root regeneration. Ann Sci For 46S:464–468CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Haase DL, Rose R (1993) Soil moisture stress induces transplant shock in stored and unstored 2+0 Douglas-fir seedlings of varying root volumes. For Sci 39:275–294Google Scholar
  91. Hahn PF, Smith AJ (1983) Douglas-fir planting stock performance. Comparison after the third growing season. Tree Planters’ Notes 34:33–39Google Scholar
  92. Hallgren SW, Tauer CG (1989) Root growth potential, first-year survival, and growth of shortleaf pine seedlings show effects of lift date, storage, and family. South J Appl For 13:163–169Google Scholar
  93. Harvey HP, van den Driessche R (1997) Nutrition, xylem cavitation and drought resistance in hybrid poplars. Tree Physiol 17:647–654PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Harvey HP, van den Driessche R (1999) Nitrogen and potassium on xylem cavitation and water-use efficiency in poplars. Tree Physiol 19:943–950PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Hennessey TC, Dougherty PM (1984) Characterization of the internal water relations of loblolly pine seedlings in response to nursery cultural treatments: implications for forest regeneration success. In: Duryea ML, Brown GN (eds) Seedling physiology and reforestation success. Martinus Nijhoff Dr W. Junk Publishers, Dordrecht, pp 225–244CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Hermann RK (1964) Importance of top-root ratios for survival of Douglas-fir seedlings. Tree Planters’ Notes 64:7–11Google Scholar
  97. Hines FD, Long JN (1986) First-and second-year survival of containerized Engelmann spruce in relation to initial seedling size. Can J For Res 16:668–670CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Hobbs SD (1982) Stocktype selection and planting techniques for Douglas-fir on skeletal soils in southwest Oregon. In: Hobbs SD, Helgerson OT (eds) Proceeding of reforestation of skelatal soils workshop. Forest Research Laboratory, Oregon State University, Corvallis, pp 92–96Google Scholar
  99. Hobbs SD (1984) The influence of species and stocktype selection on stand establishment: an ecophysiological perspective. In: Duryea ML, Brown GH (eds) Seedling physiology and reforestation success: proceedings of the physiology working group technical session. Martinus Nijhoff/Dr. W. Junk Publishers, Boston, pp 180–224Google Scholar
  100. Hobbs SD, Wearstler KA (1983) Performance of three Douglas-fir stocktypes on a skeletal soil. Tree Planters’ Notes 34:11–14Google Scholar
  101. Hobbs SD, Crawford MS, Yelczyn BA (1989) Early development of three Douglas-fir stocktypes on a droughty skeletal soil. West J Appl For 4:21–24Google Scholar
  102. Hobbs SD, Tesch SD, Owston PW, Stewart RE, Tappeiner JC II, Wells GE (1992) Reforestation practices in Southwestern Oregon and Northern California. Forest Research Laboratory, Oregon State University, Corvallis, ORGoogle Scholar
  103. Ingestad T, Lund AB (1986) Theory and techniques for steady state mineral nutrition and growth of plants. Scand J For Res 1:439–453CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Irwin KM, Duryea ML, Stone EL (1998) Fall-applied nitrogen improves performance of 1-0 slash pine nursery seedlings after outplanting. South J Appl For 22:111–116Google Scholar
  105. Islam MA, Apostol KG, Jacobs DF, Dumroese RK (2009) Fall fertilization of Pinus resinosa seedlings: nutrient uptake, cold hardiness, and morphological development. Ann For Sci 66:704–713CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Jacobs DF, Davis AD, Wilson BC, Dumroese RK, Goodman RC, Salifu KF (2008) Short-day treatment alters Douglas-fir seedling dehardening and transplant root proliferation at varying rhizosphere temperatures. Can J For Res 38:1526–1535CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Jarvis PG (1976) The interpretation of the variations in leaf water potential and stomatal conductance found in canopies in the field. Philos Trans R Soc Lond Ser B 273:593–610CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Jobidon R, Charette L, Bernier PY (1997) Initial size and competing vegetation effects on water stress and growth of Picea mariana (Mill.) BSP seedlings planted in three different environments. For Ecol Manage 103:295–308Google Scholar
  109. Jobidon R, Roy V, Cyr G (2003) Net effect of competing vegetation on selected environmental conditions and performance of four spruce seedling stock sizes after eight years in Quebec (Canada). Ann For Sci 60:691–699CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Johnsen KH, Feret PP, Seiler JR (1988) Root growth potential and shoot activity of northern and southern provenances of 1-0 eastern white pine seedlings grown in a Virginia nursery. Can J For Res 18:610–614CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Johnson JD, Cline ML (1991) Seedling quality of southern pines. In: Duryea ML, Dougherty PM (eds) Forest regeneration manual. Kluwer, Dordrecht, pp 143–162CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Johnson DM, Smith WK (2005) Refugial forests of the southern Appalachians: photosynthesis and survival in current-year Abies fraseri seedlings. Tree Physiol 25:1379–1387PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Johnson PS, Novinger SL, Mares WG (1984) Root, shoot, and leaf area growth potentials of nortern red oak planting stock. For Sci 30:1017–1026Google Scholar
  114. Johnson JD, Seiler JR, McNabb KL (1985) Manipulation of pine seedling physiology by water stress conditioning. In: South DB (ed) Proceedings of the international symposium on nursery manage. Practices for the Southern Pines, IUFRO Sub. Grp. S3.202-03, pp 290–302Google Scholar
  115. Jones MD, Kiiskila S, Flanagan A (2002) Field performance of pine stock types: two-year results of a trial on interior lodgepole pine seedlings grown in Styroblocks™, Copperblocks™, or AirBlocks™. BC J Ecosyst Manag 2:1–12Google Scholar
  116. Jospon TM, Paul JL (1985) Influence of fall fertilization and moisture stress on growth and field performance on container-grown Douglas-fir seedlings. USDA Forest Service Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-185, pp 14–19Google Scholar
  117. Jutras S, Thiffault N, Munson AD (2007) Comparing large bareroot and container stock: water stress as influenced by peat and soil water availability. Tree Planters’ Notes 52:15–18Google Scholar
  118. Kainer KA, Duryea ML (1990) Root wrenching and lifting date of slash pine: effects on morphology, survival and growth. New For 4:207–221CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Kandiko RA, Timmis R, Worrall J (1980) Pressure-volume curves of shoots and roots of normal and drought-conditioned western hemlock seedlings. Can J For Res 10:10–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Kaushal P, Aussenec G (1989) Drought preconditioning of Corsican pine and Cedar of Atlas seedlings: photosynthesis, transpiration and root regeneration after transplanting. Acta Oecol 11:61–78Google Scholar
  121. Kim YT, Colombo SJ, Hickie DF, Noland TD (1999) Amino acid, carbohydrate, glutathione, mineral nutrient and water potential changes in non-water-stressed Picea mariana seedlings after transplanting. Scand J For Res 14:416–424CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Kittredge J (1929) Forest planting in the lake states. USDA Bull. 1497Google Scholar
  123. Kormanik PP (1986) Lateral root morphology as an expression of sweetgum seedling quality. For Sci 32:595–604Google Scholar
  124. Kozlowski TT, Pallardy SG (2002) Acclimation and adaptive response of woody plants to environmental stress. Bot Rev 68:270–334CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Kozlowski TT, Kramer PJ, Pallardy SG (1991) The physiological ecology of woody plants. Academic Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  126. Krasowski MJ, Letchford T, Eastham AM (1993) Growth of short-day treated spruce seedlings planted throughout British Columbia. Forestry Canada and British Columbia Ministry of Forests, Victoria, BC, FRDA Rep. 209Google Scholar
  127. Lamhamedi MS, Bernier PY, Hérbert C (1997) Effect of shoot size on the gas exchange and growth of containerized Picea mariana seedlings under different watering regimes. New For 13:209–223CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Landis TD, Tinus RW, McDonald SE, Barnett JP (1989) Seedling nutrition and irrigation. The container tree nursery manual, vol 4. USDA Forest Service Agric. Handb. 674, Washington, DC, 87 ppGoogle Scholar
  129. Landis TD, Tinus RW, Barnett JP (1999) Seedling propagation. The container tree nursery manual, vol. 6. USDA Forest Service Agric. Handb. 674, Washington, DC, 167 ppGoogle Scholar
  130. Lantz CW (ed) (1985) Southern pine nursery handbook. USDA Forest Service Cooperative Forestry, Southern RegionGoogle Scholar
  131. Larsen HS, South DB, Boyer JM (1986) Root growth potential, seedling morphology and bud dormancy correlate with survival of loblolly pine seedlings planted in December in Alabama. Tree Physiol 1:253–263PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. Larsen HS, South DB, Boyer JM (1988) Foliar nitrogen content at lifting correlates with early growth of loblolly pine seedlings from 20 nurseries. South J Appl For 12:181–185Google Scholar
  133. Lavender DP (1985) Bud dormancy. In: Duryea ML (ed) Evaluating seedling quality: principles, procedures, and predictive ability of major tests. Forest Research Laboratory, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR, pp 7–15Google Scholar
  134. Lavender DP, Cleary BD (1974) Coniferous seedling production techniques to improve seedling establishment. In: Tinus RW, Stein WI, Balmer WE (eds) Proceedings of the North American containerized forest tree seedling symposium. Great Plains Ag. Council Publ. No. 68, pp 177–180Google Scholar
  135. Lavender DP, Wareing PF (1972) The effects of daylength and chilling on the response of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco.) seedlings to root damage and storage. New Phytol 71:1055–1067CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Lavender DP, Parish R, Johnson CM, Montgomery G, Vyse A, Willis RA, Winston D (eds) (1990) Regenerating British Columbia’s forests. University of British Columbia Press, Vancouver, BCGoogle Scholar
  137. Li GL, Lui Y, Yang J, Sun HY, Jia ZK, Ma LY (2011) Influence of initial age and size on the field performance of Larix olgensis seedlings. New For 42:215–226CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Long AJ, Carrier BD (1993) Effects of Douglas-fir 2+0 seedling morphology on field performance. New For 7:19–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Lopushinsky W, Beebe T (1976) Relationship of shoot-root ratio to survival and growth of outplanted Douglas-fir and ponderosa pine seedlings. USDA Forest Service Res. Note, PNW-274Google Scholar
  140. Luis VC, Puértolas J, Climent J, Peters J, González-Rodríguez AM, Morales D, Jimenéz MS (2009) Nursery fertilization enhances survival and physiological status in Canary Island pine (Pinus canariensis) seedlings planted in a semiarid environment. Eur J For Res 128:221–229CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Luoranen J, Lahti M, Rikala R (2008) Frost hardiness of nutrient-loaded two-year-old Picea abies seedlings in autumn and at the end of freezer storage. New For 35:207–220CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Macey DE, Arnott JT (1986) The effect of moderate moisture and nutrient stress on bud formation and growth of container-grown white spruce seedlings. Can J For Res 16:949–954CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Major JE, Grossnickle SC, Folk RS, Arnott JT (1994) Influence of nursery culture on western red cedar. I. Measurement of seedling attributes before fall and spring planting. New For 8:211–229CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Malik V, Timmer VR (1996) Growth, nutrient dynamics, and interspecific competition of nutrient-loaded black spruce seedlings on a boreal mixedwood site. Can J For Res 26:1651–1659CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Malik V, Timmer VR (1998) Biomass partitioning and nitrogen retranslocation in black spruce seedlings on competitive mixedwood sites: a bioassay study. Can J For Res 28:206–215CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Margolis HA, Brand DG (1990) An ecophysiological basis for understanding plantation establishment. Can J For Res 20:375–390CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Margolis HA, Waring RH (1986) Carbon and nitrogen allocation patterns of Douglas-fir seedlings fertilized with nitrogen in autumn. II. Field performance. Can J For Res 16:903–909CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Marshall JD (1985) Carbohydrate status as a measure of seedling quality. In: Duryea ML (ed) Evaluating seedling quality: principles, procedures, and predictive ability of major tests. Forest Research Laboratory, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR, pp 49–56Google Scholar
  149. Mason EG, South DB, Weizhong Z (1996) Performance of Pinus radiata in relation to seedling grade, weed control, and soil cultivation in the central North Island of New Zealand. N Z J For Sci 26:173–183Google Scholar
  150. Mattsson A (1996) Predicting field performance using seedling quality assessment. New For 13:223–248Google Scholar
  151. McDonald SE, Tinus RW, Reid CPP (1982) Root development control measures in containers: recent findings. In: Scarrett JB, Glerum C, Plexman CA (eds) Proceedings of the Canadian containerized tree seedling symposium. Can. For. Serv. Great Lakes For. Cent. COJFRC Symp. Proc. O-P-10, pp 207–214Google Scholar
  152. McDonald SE, Tinus RW, Reid CPP, Grossnickle SC (1984) Effect of CuCO3 container wall treatments and mycorrhizae fungi inoculation of growing medium on pine seedling growth and root development. J Environ Hortic 2:5–8Google Scholar
  153. McDowell N, Pockman WT, Allen CD, Bershears DD, Cobb N, Kolb T, Plaut J, Sperry J, West A, Williams DG, Yepez EA (2008) Mechanisms of plant survival and mortality during drought: why do some plants survive while others succumb to drought? New Phytol 178:719–739PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. McGrath DA, Duryea ML (1994) Initial moisture stress, budbreak and two-year field performance of three morphological grades of slash pine seedlings. New For 8:335–350Google Scholar
  155. McKay HM, Mason WL (1991) Physiological indicators of tolerance to cold storage in Sitka spruce and Douglas-fir seedlings. Can J For Res 21:890–910CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. McTague JP, Tinus RW (1996) The effects of seedling quality and forest site weather on field survival of ponderosa pine. Tree Planters’ Notes 47:16–32Google Scholar
  157. Mena-Petite A, Ortega-Lasuen U, González-Moro M, Lacuesta M, Muňoz-Rueda A (2001) Storage duration and temperature effects on the functional integrity of container and bare-root Pinus radiata D. Don stock-types. Trees 15:289–296CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Menzies MI, Holden DG, Green LM, Rook DA (1981) Seasonal changes in frost tolerance of Pinus radiata seedlings raised in different nurseries. N Z J For Sci 11:100–111Google Scholar
  159. Menzies MI, van Dorsser JC, Balneaves JM (1985) Seedling quality—radiata pine as a case study. In: South DB (ed) Proceedings of the international symposium on nursery manage. Practices for the Southern Pines, IUFRO Sub. Grp. S3.202-03, pp 385–415Google Scholar
  160. Mexal JG, Dougherty PM (1983) Growth of loblolly pine seedlings. IV. Performance in a simulated drought environment. Weyerhaeuser Co. Hot Springs, AK. Tech Rep. 050-1422/6, 26 ppGoogle Scholar
  161. Mexal JG, Landis TD (1990) Target seedling concepts: height and diameter. In: Rose R, Campbell SJ, Landis TD (eds) Target seedling symposium: proceedings of the western forest nursery associations. USDA Forest Service Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-200, pp 17–36Google Scholar
  162. Mexal JG, South DB (1991) Bareroot seedling culture. In: Duryea ML, Dougherty PM (eds) Forest regeneration manual. Kluwer, Dordrecht, pp 89–115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Mexal JG, Timmis R, Morris WG (1979) Cold hardiness of containerized loblolly pine seedlings. South J Appl For 3:15–19Google Scholar
  164. Mexal JG, Cuevas Rangel RA, Landis TD (2008) Reforestation success in central Mexico: factors determining survival and early growth. Tree Planters’ Notes 53:16–22Google Scholar
  165. Miller PC (1983) Comparison of water balance characteristics of plant species in “natural” versus modified ecosystems. In: Mooney HA, Godron M (eds) Disturbance and ecosystems. Components of response. Springer, Berlin, pp 188–212CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. Mohammed GH, Noland TL, Wagner RG (1998) Physiological perturbation in jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.) in the presence of competing herbaceous vegetation. For Ecol Manage 103:77–85CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Moore DG (2002) Some new research into container design. Proc Int Plant Prop Soc 52:105–108Google Scholar
  168. Morrissey RC, Jacobs DF, Davis AS, Rathfon RA (2010) Survival and competitiveness of Quercus rubra regeneration associated with planting stocktype and harvest opening intensity. New For 40:273–287CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. Munson AD, Bernier PY (1993) Comparing natural and planted black spruce seedlings. II. Nutrient uptake and efficiency of use. Can J For Res 23:2435–2442CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. Muse DH, Hatchell GE (1992) A preliminary identification of morphological indicators of field performance in bare-root nursery stock. USDA Forest Service Res. Pap. SE-283Google Scholar
  171. Nambiar EKS (1984) Significance of first-order lateral roots on the growth of young radiata pine under environmental stress. Aust For Res 14:187–199Google Scholar
  172. Nelson WR (1999) Root pruning can influence first order lateral root development of containerised plants. Proc Int Plant Prop Soc 49:96–103Google Scholar
  173. Newton M, Cole EC, White DE (1993) Tall planting stock for enhanced growth and domination of brush in the Douglas-fir region. New For 7:107–121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. Nilsson U, Örlander G (1995) Effects of regeneration methods on drought damage to newly planted Norway spruce seedlings. Can J For Res 25:790–802CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. Oliet JA, Tejada M, Salifu KF, Collazos A, Jacobs DF (2009a) Performance and nutrient dynamics of holm oak (Quercus ilex L.) seedlings in relation to nursery nutrient loading and post-transplant fertility. Eur J Forest Res 128:253–263CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. Oliet JA, Planelles R, Artero F, Valverde R, Jacobs DF, Segura M (2009b) Field performance of Pinus halepensis planted in Mediterranean arid conditions: relative influence of seedling morphology and mineral nutrition. New For 37:313–331CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. Oliet JA, Salazar JM, Villar R, Robredo E, Valladares F (2011) Fall fertilization of Holm oak affects N and P dynamics, root growth potential, and post-planting phenology and growth. Ann For Sci 68:647–656CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. O’Reilly C, Owens JN, Arnott JT, Dunsworth BG (1994) Effect of nursery culture on morphological development of western hemlock seedlings during field establishment. II. Survival, shoot length components, and needle length. Can J For Res 24:61–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. Örlander G, Due K (1986) Location of hydraulic resistance in the soil-plant pathway in seedlings of Pinus sylvestris L. grown in peat. Can J For Res 16:115–123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. Owston PW (1990) Target seedling specifications: Are stocktype designations useful? In: Rose R, Campbell SJ, Landis TD (eds) Target seedling symposium: proceedings of the western forest nursery associations. USDA Forest Service Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-200, pp 9–16Google Scholar
  181. Parker J (1949) Effects of variation in the root-leaf ratio on transpiration rate. Plant Physiol 24:739–743PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. Paul GS, Montagnini F, Berlyn GP, Craven DJ, van Breugel M, Hall JS (2012) Foliar herbivory and leaf traits of five native tree species in a young plantation of Central Panama. New For 43:9–87CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. Puértolas J, Gil L, Pardos JA (2003) Effects of nutritional status and seedling size on field performance of Pinus halepensis planted in former arable land in the Mediterranean basin. Forestry 76:159–168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. Puttonen P (1997) Looking for the “silver bullet”—can one test do it all? New For 13:9–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. Ritchie GA (1982) Carbohydrate reserves and root growth potential in Douglas-fir seedlings before and after cold storage. Can J For Res 12:905–912CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. Ritchie GA (1984) Assessing seedling quality. In: Duryea ML, Landis TD (eds) Forest nursery manual: production of bareroot seedlings. Martinus Nijhoff/Dr. W. Junk Publishers, The Hague, pp 243–266CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. Ritchie GA (1985) Root growth potential: principles, procedures, and predictive ability. In: Duryea ML (ed) Evaluating seedling quality: principles, procedures, and predictive ability of major tests. Oregon State University, Forestry Research Laboratory, Corvallis, OR, pp 93–106Google Scholar
  188. Ritchie GA, Dunlap JR (1980) Root growth potential: its development and expression in forest tree seedlings. N Z J For Sci 10:218–248Google Scholar
  189. Ritchie GA, Roden JR (1985) Comparison between two methods of generating pressure-volume curves. Plant, Cell Environ 8:49–53CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. Ritchie GA, Tanaka Y (1990) Root growth potential and the target seedling. In: Rose R, Campbell SJ, Landis TD (eds) Target seedling symposium: proceedings of the western forest nursery associations. USDA Forest Service Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-200, pp 37–51Google Scholar
  191. Roberts DR, Dumbroff EB (1986) Drought resistance, transpiration rates and ABA levels of three northern conifers. Tree Physiol 1:161–178PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. Rodgers AR, Williams D, Sinclair ARE, Sullivan TP, Andersen RJ (1993) Does nursery production reduce antiherbivore defenses of white spruce? Evidence from feeding experiments with snowshoe hares. Can J For Res 23:2358–2361CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. Rook DA (1969) Water relations of wrenched and unwrenched Pinus radiata seedlings on being transplanted into conditions of water stress. N Z J For 14:50–58Google Scholar
  194. Rose R, Ketchum JS (2003) Interaction of initial seedling diameter, fertilization and weed control on Douglas-fir growth over the first four years after planting. Ann For Sci 60:625–635CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. Rose R, Gleason JF, Atkinson M (1993) Morphological and water-stress characteristics of three Douglas-fir stocktypes in relation to seedling performance under different soil moisture conditions. New For 7:1–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  196. Rose R, Haase DL, Kroiher F, Sabin T (1997) Root volume and growth of ponderosa pine and Douglas-fir seedlings: a summary of eight growing seasons. West J Appl For 12:69–73Google Scholar
  197. Royo A, Gil L, Pardos JA (2001) Effects of water stress conditioning on morphology, physiology and field performance of Pinus halepensis Mill. seedlings. New For 21:127–140CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. Rowe SJ (1964) Environmental preconditioning with special reference to forestry. Ecology 45:399–403CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. Rudolf PO (1939) Why forest plantations fail. J For 37:377–383Google Scholar
  200. Salifu KF, Jacobs DF, Birge ZKD (2009) Nursery nitrogen loading improves field performance of bareroot oak seedlings planted on abandon mine lands. Restor Ecol 17:339–349CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  201. Scagel R, Bowden R, Madill M, Kooistra C (1993) Provincial seedling stock type selection and ordering guidelines. British Columbia Ministry of Forests, Victoria, BC 75Google Scholar
  202. Schultz RC, Thompson JR (1996) Effect of density control and undercutting on root morphology of 1+0 bareroot hardwood seedlings: five-year field performance of root-graded stock in central USA. New For 13:297–310Google Scholar
  203. Seiler JR, Johnson JD (1985) Photosynthesis and transpiration of loblolly pine seedlings as influenced by moisture-stress conditioning. For Sci 31:742–749Google Scholar
  204. Shoulders E (1959) Root pruning boosts longleaf pine survival. Tree Planters’ Notes 36:15–19Google Scholar
  205. Simpson DG (1990) Frost hardiness, root growth capacity, and field performance relationships in interior spruce, lodgepole pine, Douglas-fir, and western hemlock seedlings. Can J For Res 20:566–572CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  206. Simpson DG, Ritchie GA (1997) Does RGP predict field performance? A debate. New For 13:253–277CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  207. Simpson DG, Vyse A (1995) Planting stock performance: site and RGP effects. For Chron 71:739–742Google Scholar
  208. Smith IE, McCubbin PD (1992) Effect of copper tray treatment on Eucalyptus grandis (Hill ex Maiden) seedling growth. Acta Hortic 319:371–376Google Scholar
  209. South DB (1993) Rationale for growing southern pine seedlings at low bed densities. New For 7:63–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  210. South DB (2000) Planting morphologically improved pine seedlings to increase survival and growth. Ala. Agric. Exp. Sta. Auburn Univ. For. and Wildlife Res. Ser. No. 1Google Scholar
  211. South DB, Barnett JP (1986) Herbicides and planting affect early performance of container-grown and bare-root loblolly pine seedlings in Alabama. New For 1:17–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  212. South DB, Blake JI (1994) Top-pruning increases survival of pine seedlings. Ala Agric Exp Sta Highlights Agric Res 41:9Google Scholar
  213. South DB, Donald DGM (2002) Effect of nursery conditioning treatments and fall fertilization on survival and early growth of Pinus taeda seedlings in Alabama, U.S.A. Can J For Res 32:1171–1179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  214. South DB, Hallgren SW (1997) Research versus operational correlations between seedling survival and root growth potential of shortleaf pine. New For 13:357–365CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  215. South DB, Mexal JG (1984) Growing the “best” seedling for reforestation success. Ala Agric Exp Stn Auburn Univ For Dep Ser No. 12Google Scholar
  216. South DB, Mitchell RJ (1999) Determining the “optimum” slash pine seedling size for use with four levels of vegetative management on flatwoods site in Georgia, USA. Can J For Res 29:1039–1046CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  217. South DB, Stumpff NJ (1990) Root stripping reduces root growth potential of loblolly pine seedlings. South J Appl For 14:196–199Google Scholar
  218. South DB, Boyer JN, Bosch L (1985) Survival and growth of loblolly pine as influenced by seedling grade: 13 year results. South J Appl For 9:76–81Google Scholar
  219. South DB, Rakestraw JL, Lowerts GA (2001) Early gains from planting large diameter seedlings and intensive management are additive for loblolly pine. New For 21:97–110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  220. South DB, Harris SW, Barnett JP, Hainds MJ, Gjerstad DH (2005) Effect of container type and seedling size on survival and early height growth of Pinus palustris seedlings in Alabama, U.S.A. For Ecol Manage 204:385–398CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  221. Stewart JD, Bernier PY (1995) Gas exchange and water relations of 3 sizes of containerized Picea mariana seedlings subjected to atmospheric and edaphic water stress under controlled conditions. Ann For Sci 52:1–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  222. Stone EC (1955) Poor survival and the physiological condition of planting stock. For Sci 1:89–94Google Scholar
  223. Stone EC, Cavallaro JI, Norberg EA (2003) Critical RGC-Expected survival models for predicting survival of planted white fir (Abies concolor Lindl.) seedlings. New For 26:65–82CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  224. Stupendick JAT, Shepherd KR (1980) Root regeneration of root-pruned Pinus radiata seedlings. II. Effects of root-pruning on photosynthesis and translocation. N Z J For Sci 10:148–158Google Scholar
  225. Sullivan TP, Moses RA (1986) Demographic and feeding responses of a snowshoe hare population to habitat alteration. J Appl Ecol 23:53–63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  226. Sutton RF (1980) Planting stock quality, root growth capacity, and field performance of three boreal conifers. N Z J For Sci 10:54–71Google Scholar
  227. Sutton RF (1990) Root growth capacity in coniferous forest trees. Hortic Sci 25:259–266Google Scholar
  228. Sword Sayer MA, Sung SJ, Haywood JD (2011) Longleaf pine root system development and seedling quality in response to copper root pruning and cavity size. South J Appl For 35:5–11Google Scholar
  229. Tan W (2007) Impacts of nursery cultural treatments on stress tolerance in 1+0 container white spruce (Picea glauca [Moench] Voss) seedlings for summer-planting. New For 33:93–107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  230. Tan W, Blanton S, Bielech JP (2008) Summer planting performance of white spruce 1+0 container seedlings affected by nursery short-day treatment. New For 35:187–205CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  231. Tanaka Y, Walstad JD, Borrecco JE (1976) The effect of wrenching on morphology and field performance of Douglas-fir and loblolly pine seedlings. Can J For Res 6:453–458CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  232. Teskey RO, Hinckley TM (1986) Moisture: effects of water stress on trees. In: Hennessey TC, Dougherty PD, Kossuth SV, Johnson JD (eds) Stress physiology and forest productivity. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, The Netherlands, pp 9–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  233. Thiffault N (2004) Stock type in intensive silviculture: a (short) discussion about roots and size. For Chron 80:463–468Google Scholar
  234. Thomas DS (2009) Survival and growth of drought hardened Eucalyptus pilularis Sm. seedlings and vegetative cuttings. New For 38:245–259CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  235. Thompson BE (1985) Seedling morphological evaluation: what you can tell by looking. In: Duryea ML (ed) Evaluating seedling quality: principles, procedures, and predictive ability of major tests. Forest Research Laboratory, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR, pp 59–72Google Scholar
  236. Tillotson CR (1915) Forest planting in the eastern United States. USDA Bull. 153Google Scholar
  237. Timmer VR (1997) Exponential nutrient loading: a new fertilization technique to improve seedling performance on competitive sites. New For 13:279–299CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  238. Timmer VR, Aidelbaum AS (1996) Manual for exponential nutrient loading of seedlings to improve outplanting performance on competitive forest sites. NODA/NFP Tech. Rep. TR-25Google Scholar
  239. Timmer VR, Miller BD (1991) Effects of contrasting fertilization and irrigation regimes on biomass, nutrients, and water relations of container grown red pine seedlings. New For 5:335–348CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  240. Timmer VR, Armstrong G, Miller BD (1991) Steady-state nutrient preconditioning and early out-planting performance of containerized black spruce seedlings. Can J For Res 21:585–594CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  241. Timmis R, Tanaka Y (1976) Effects of container density and plant water stress on growth and cold hardiness of Douglas-fir seedlings. For Sci 22:167–172Google Scholar
  242. Tinus RW (1974) Characteristics of seedlings with high survival potential. In: Tinus RW, Stein WI, Balmer WE (eds) Proceedings of the North American containerized forest tree seedling symposium. Great Plains Ag. Council Publ. No. 68, pp 276–282Google Scholar
  243. Tinus RW, McDonald SE (1979) How to grow tree seedlings in containers in greenhouses. USDA Forest Service Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-60Google Scholar
  244. Toumey JW (1916) Seeding and planting. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  245. Troth JL, Campbell RG, Allen HL (1986) Nutrients: use of forest fertilization and nutrient efficient genotypes to manage nutrient stress in conifer stands. In: Hennessey TC, Dougherty PD, Kossuth SV, Johnson JD (eds) Stress physiology and forest productivity. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, The Netherlands, pp 61–99CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  246. Tsakaldimi MN, Ganatsas PP (2006) Effects of chemical pruning on stem growth, root morphology and field performance on the Mediterranean pine Pinus halepensis Mill. Sci Hortic 109:183–189CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  247. Tuttle CS, South DB, Golden MS, Meldahal RS (1987) Relationship between initial seedling height and survival and growth of loblolly pine seedlings planted during a droughty year. South J Appl For 11:139–143Google Scholar
  248. Tuttle CS, South DB, Golden MS, Meldahal RS (1988) Initial Pinus taeda seedling height relationships with early survival and growth. Can J For Res 18:867–871CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  249. Unterschuetz PF, Ruetz W, Geppert R, Ferrell WK (1974) The effect of age, pre-conditioning, and water stress in the transpiration rates of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) seedlings of several ecotypes. Physiol Plant 32:214–221CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  250. Vaartaja O (1960) Effect of photoperiod on drought resistance of white spruce seedlings. Can J Bot 38:597–599CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  251. van den Driessche R (1969) Influence of moisture supply, temperature, and light on frost hardiness changes in Douglas-fir seedlings. Can J Bot 47:1765–1772CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  252. van den Driessche R (1980) Effects of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilization on Douglas-fir nursery growth and survival after outplanting. Can J For Res 10:65–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  253. van den Driessche R (1984) Relationship between spacing and nitrogen fertilization of seedlings in the nursery, seedling mineral nutrition, and outplanting performance. Can J For Res 14:431–436CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  254. van den Driessche R (1985) Late-season fertilization, mineral nutrient reserves, and retranslocation in planted Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) seedlings. For Sci 31:485–496Google Scholar
  255. van den Driessche R (1988) Nursery growth of conifer seedlings using fertilizers of different solubilities and application time, and their forest growth. Can J For Res 18:172–180CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  256. van den Driessche R (1991a) Influence of container nursery regimes on drought resistance of seedlings following planting: survival and growth. Can J For Res 21:555–565CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  257. van den Driessche R (1991b) Effects of nutrients on stock performance in the forest. In: van den Driessche R (ed) Mineral nutrition of conifer seedlings. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, pp 229–260Google Scholar
  258. van den Driessche R (1992) Changes in drought resistance and root growth capacity of container seedlings in response to nursery drought, nitrogen, and potassium treatments. Can J For Res 22:740–749CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  259. VanderSchaaf C, McNabb K (2004) Winter nitrogen fertilization of loblolly pine seedlings. Plant Soil 265:295–299CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  260. Verdauger D, Vilagran J, Lloansi S, Fleck I (2011) Morphological and physiological acclimation of Quercus coccifera L. seedlings to water availability and growing medium. New For 42:363–381CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  261. Villar-Salvador P, Ocana L, Penuelas J, Carrasco I (1999) Effects of water stress conditioning on the water relations, root growth capacity, and nitrogen and non-structural carbohydrate concentration of Pinus halepensis Mill. seedlings. Ann For Sci 56:459–465CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  262. Villar-Salvador P, Penuelles R, Enriquez E, Penuelas J, Rubira JL (2004a) Nursery cultivation regimes, plant functional attributes, and field performance relationship in Mediterranean oak Quercus ilex L. For Ecol Manage 196:257–266CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  263. Villar-Salvador P, Penuelles R, Oliet J, Enriquez E, Penuelas JL, Jacobs DF, Gonzalez M (2004b) Drought tolerance and transplanting performance of holm oak (Quercus ilex) seedlings after drought hardening in the nursery. Tree Physiol 24:1147–1155PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  264. Wagner B, Colombo SJ (eds) (2001) Regenerating Ontario’s forests. Fitzhenry & Whiteside Ltd., Markham, ONGoogle Scholar
  265. Wakeley PC (1948) Physiological grades of southern pine nursery stock. Soc Am For Proc 1948:311–322Google Scholar
  266. Wakeley PC (1954) Planting the southern pines. Agric. Monogr. No. 18. USDA Forest Service Washington, DC, 233 ppGoogle Scholar
  267. Webb RA (1972) Use of boundary line in the analysis of biological data. J Hortic Sci 97:309–319Google Scholar
  268. Wenny DL, Liu Y, Dumroese RK, Osborne HL (1988) First year field growth of chemically root pruned containerized seedlings. New For 2:111–118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  269. Whitcomb CE (1984) Plant production in containers. Lacebark Publications, Stillwater, OKGoogle Scholar
  270. Williams HM, South DB (1992) Effects of fall fertilizer applications on mitotic index and bud dormancy of loblolly pine seedlings. For Sci 38:336–349Google Scholar
  271. Williams BJ, Pellett NE, Klein RM (1972) Phytochrome control of growth cessation and initiation of cold acclimation in selected woody plants. Plant Physiol 50:262–265PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  272. Williams HM, South DB, Webb A (1988) Effects of fall irrigation on morphology and root growth potential of loblolly pine seedlings growing in sand. S Afr For J 147:1–5Google Scholar
  273. Wilson BC, Jacobs DF (2006) Quality assessment of temperate zone deciduous hardwood seedlings. New For 31:417–433CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  274. Wilson ER, Vitols K, Park A (2007) Root characteristics and growth potential of container and bare-root seedlings of red oak (Quercus rubra L.) in Ontario Canada. New For 34:163–176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  275. Young LJ (1921) Forest planting in southern Michigan. J For 19:1–8Google Scholar
  276. Young E, Hanover JW (1978) Effects of temperature, nutrient, and moisture stresses on dormancy of blue spruce seedlings under continuous light. For Sci 24:458–467Google Scholar
  277. Zida D, Tigabu M, Sawadogo L, Odén PC (2008) Initial seedling morphological characteristics and field performance of two Sudanian savannah species in relation to nursery production period and watering regimes. For Ecol Manage 255:2151–2162CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  278. Zobel BJ, Talbert JT (1984) Applied forest tree improvement. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  279. Zwiazek JJ, Blake TJ (1989) Effects of preconditioning on subsequent water relations, stomatal sensitivity, and photosynthesis in osmotically stressed black spruce. Can J Bot 67:2240–2244CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  280. Zwolinski JB, South DB, Cunningham L, Christie S (1996) Weed control and large bare-root stock improve early growth of Pinus radiata in South Africa. N Z J For Sci 26:163–172Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.CellFor Inc.SaanichtonCanada

Personalised recommendations