New Forests

, Volume 44, Issue 1, pp 135–146 | Cite as

Susceptibility of provenances and families of Pinus maximinoi and Pinus tecunumanii to frost in South Africa

  • R. G. MitchellEmail author
  • M. J. Wingfield
  • G. R. Hodge
  • W. S. Dvorak
  • T. A. Coutinho


The future of South Africa’s most important pine species, Pinus patula, is threatened by the pitch canker fungus, Fusarium circinatum. Pinus maximinoi and P. tecunumanii represent two subtropical species that provide an alternative to planting P. patula on the warmer sites of South Africa. Extending the planting range of P. tecunumanii and P. maximinoi to include higher and colder altitude sites will reduce the area planted to P. patula and the risk of F. circinatum. During 2007 progeny trials of P. tecunumanii and P. maximinoi were planted on a sub-tropical and sub-temperate site. Shortly after the establishment of these trials, unusually cold weather conditions were experienced across South Africa (−3°C at the sub-temperate site) resulting in severe mortality. This provided the opportunity to assess the variation in survival as a measure of frost tolerance within these two species to determine whether it could be improved upon through selection. Results indicated that the variation in survival was under genetic control in P. tecunumanii (h (0,1) 2  = 0.16, h L 2  = 0.27) and P. maximinoi (h (0,1) 2  = 0.11, h L 2  = 0.23) at the sub-temperate site. Correlations in provenance ranking for survival across sites were high for both species. Moderate correlations in family survival for P. tecunumanii (r = 0.52) were found at the two sites. Improvements in cold tolerance can thus be made in both species extending their planting range to include greater areas planted to P. patula thereby limiting the risk of F. circinatum.


Camcore Genetic diversity Frost susceptibility South Africa Pinus maximinoi Pinus tecunumanii 



We thank Komatiland Forests for making available the data from these trials for publication.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. G. Mitchell
    • 1
    Email author
  • M. J. Wingfield
    • 2
  • G. R. Hodge
    • 3
  • W. S. Dvorak
    • 3
  • T. A. Coutinho
    • 2
  1. 1.York Timbers, Tree Breeding DivisionSabieSouth Africa
  2. 2.Department of Microbiology and Plant Pathology, Forestry and Agricultural Biotechnology Institute (FABI)University of PretoriaPretoriaSouth Africa
  3. 3.Department of Forestry and Environmental ResourcesNorth Carolina State UniversityRaleighUSA

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