Advertisement

New Forests

, Volume 42, Issue 2, pp 149–162 | Cite as

Estimation of rubberwood production in Cambodia

  • Akira ShigematsuEmail author
  • Nobuya Mizoue
  • Kumiko Ide
  • Kakada Khun
  • Muthavy Pheng
  • Shigejiro Yoshida
  • Katsuhisa Kohroki
  • Noriko Sato
Article

Abstract

We estimated the production of rubberwood from 1996 to 2011 in Cambodia. We employed data from interview surveys with three rubberwood processing companies and statistics from estate rubber plantations and wood retailing companies. The result was that the end use of rubberwood in Cambodia was the sawntimber products, being exported to Vietnam and China. The yield rate from rubberwood stumpage into sawn timber was between 11.6 and 14.9%, closely matching the rates of Malaysia and Thailand. The average production of rubberwood roundwood from 1996 to 2011 was 254,697 m3/year, of which sawn timber as well as residuals in secondary processing was 84,559 and 170,138 m3/year, respectively. Although the timber production of Cambodia has declined sharply due to the strict restriction of natural forest logging, rubberwood could explain more than 60% of the domestic industrial roundwood production from 2000. We suggest the necessity of monitoring the expansion of rubber plantations in new rubber producing countries and linking the rubberwood production with the regional wood resource management.

Keywords

Deforestation Rubberwood Cambodia Production potential Wood resource management 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We are grateful to General Directorate of Rubber of Cambodia for providing the statistics and generous assistance of this study, and the two reviewers for their useful comments. This research was funded in part by the Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (B) (No. 18255009) from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS).

References

  1. Abe H, Katayama A, Sah BP, Toriu T, Samy S, Pheach P, Adams MA, Grierson PF (2007) Potential for rural electrification based on biomass gasification in Cambodia. Biomass Bioenergy 31(9):656–664CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. ADB (2008) Key indicators for Asia and the Pacific 2008: Cambodia. Asia Development Bank, ManilaGoogle Scholar
  3. Beach RH, Pattanayak SK, Yang JC, Murray BC, Abt RC (2005) Econometric studies of non-industrial private forest management a review and synthesis. For Pol Econ 3:14–22Google Scholar
  4. Buongiorno J (1996) Forest sector modeling: a synthesis of econometrics, mathematical programming, and system dynamics method. Int J Forecasting 12:329–343CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Durst PB, Killmann W, Brown C (2004) Asia’s new woods. J For 102(4):46–53Google Scholar
  6. FAO (1997) Country paper on some aspects of forestry in Cambodia. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, RomeGoogle Scholar
  7. FAO (2000) The utilization, processing and demand for rubberwood as a source of wood supply. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, RomeGoogle Scholar
  8. FAO (2001) Non-forest tree plantations. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, RomeGoogle Scholar
  9. FAO (2002) An overview of forest products statistics in South and Southeast Asia. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, RomeGoogle Scholar
  10. FAO (2005) Global forest resources assessment 2005: progress towards sustainable forest management. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, RomeGoogle Scholar
  11. FAO (2009a) Thailand forestry outlook study. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, regional office for Asia and the Pacific, BangkokGoogle Scholar
  12. FAO (2009b) Malaysia forestry outlook study. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, regional office for Asia and the Pacific, BangkokGoogle Scholar
  13. FAO (2009c) State of world’s forests 2009. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, regional office for Asia and the Pacific, BangkokGoogle Scholar
  14. FAO (2010) FAO statistics (FAOSTAT): industrial roundwood production in Cambodia from 1990 to 2009. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome. http://faostat.fao.org. Accessed 5 November 2010
  15. GDRP (1996) Statistics on rubber areas and number of trees in 1996. General Directorate of Rubber Plantations, Phnom PenhGoogle Scholar
  16. GDRP (2005) Rubber plantation in Cambodia. General Directorate of Rubber Plantations, Phnom PenhGoogle Scholar
  17. GDRP (2006a) Situation of cutting down old trees in 2006. General Directorate of Rubber Plantations, Phnom PenhGoogle Scholar
  18. GDRP (2006b) Rubberwood factories in 2006. Rubber Development Department, General Directorate of Rubber Plantations, Phnom PenhGoogle Scholar
  19. GDRP (2006c) Statistics of the 7 State-owned rubber estates in 2006. General Directorate of Rubber Plantations, Phnom PenhGoogle Scholar
  20. GDRP (2007) Area of old rubber trees cut down 1996–2007. General Directorate of Rubber Plantations, Phnom PenhGoogle Scholar
  21. GTZ (2005) Para rubber study, Hevea braziliensis, Lao P.D.R. Gemeinschaft fuer Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ), VientianeGoogle Scholar
  22. Guo Z, Zhang Y, Deegen P, Uibrig H (2006) Economic analyses of rubber and tea plantations and rubber–tea intercropping in Hainan, China. Agrofor Syst 66(2):117–127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Harimi M, Ahmad M, Sapuan SM, Idris A (2005) Numerical analysis of emission component from incineration of palm oil wastes. Biomass Bioenergy 28(3):339–345CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Hong LT (1995) Rubberwood: powering Malaysia’s furniture and panel industry. Asian Timber 17:17–22Google Scholar
  25. ITC (1993) Rubberwood: a study of the world development potential. International Trade Centre, UNCTAD/GATT, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  26. ITTO (1998) Annual review and assessment of the world timber situation: 1998. International Tropical Timber Organization, YokohamaGoogle Scholar
  27. ITTO (2005a) Report on the development of the Thai rubberwood industry: Promotion of the Thai rubberwood industry in the Years 2002–2005. International Tropical Timber Organization, YokohamaGoogle Scholar
  28. ITTO (2005b) The national forum strategies for rubberwood industrial development. International Tropical Timber Organization, YokohamaGoogle Scholar
  29. ITTO (2005c) Status of tropical forest management 2005: Cambodia. International Tropical Timber Organization, YokohamaGoogle Scholar
  30. ITTO (2006) Annual review and assessment of the world timber situation: 2006. International Tropical Timber Organization, YokohamaGoogle Scholar
  31. ITTO (2008) Annual review and assessment of the world timber situation: 2008. International Tropical Timber Organization, YokohamaGoogle Scholar
  32. ITTO (2009) Encouraging industrial forest plantations in the tropics. ITTO Technical Series 33. International Tropical Timber Organization, YokohamaGoogle Scholar
  33. Jensen A (2009) Valuation of non-timber forest products value chain. For Pol Econ 11:34–41Google Scholar
  34. Khun K, Mizoue N, Yoshida S, Murakami T (2008) Stem volume equation and tree growth for rubber trees in Cambodia. J For Plan 13:335–341Google Scholar
  35. Kiam TS (2002) Forest plantation development in Malaysia and the potential of rubber wood as an important source of timber in the future. Proceedings of the International Conference on Forest Plantations. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, RomeGoogle Scholar
  36. Killmann W, Hong LT (2000) Rubberwood-the success of an agricultural by-product. Unasylva 51(201):66–72Google Scholar
  37. Kim S, Phat NK, Koike M, Hayashi H (2006) Estimating actual and potential government revenues from timber harvesting in Cambodia. For Pol Econ 8:625–635Google Scholar
  38. Krukanont P, Prasertsan S (2004) Geographical distribution of biomass and potential sites of rubberwood fired power plants in Southern Thailand. Biomass Bioenergy 26:47–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Li Y (2001) Sustainable Development of Rubberwood in China: Sustainable Production of Forest Products. Proceedings of IUFRO Division 5, Research group 5.12, 35-39, Kuala LumpurGoogle Scholar
  40. Liu W, Hu H, Ma Y, Li H (2006) Environmental and socioeconomic impacts of increasing rubber plantations in Menglun Township, Southwest China. Mt Res Dev 26(3):245–253CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. MAFF (2007) Annual report on agriculture, forestry and fisheries 2007–2008. Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, Cambodia, Phnom PenhGoogle Scholar
  42. Meyfroid P, Lambin EF (2008a) The causes of reforestation in Vietnam. L Use Pol 25:182–197CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Meyfroid P, Lambin EF (2008b) Forest transition in Vietnam and displacement of deforestation abroad. Proc Natl Acad Sci 106:16139–16144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. MRB (2005) Rubber forest plantation. Malaysia rubber board monograph (5). Malaysia Rubber Board, Kuala LumpurGoogle Scholar
  45. NIS (1999) General population census of Cambodia. National Institute of Statistics of Cambodia, Phnom PenhGoogle Scholar
  46. Prasertsan P, Prasertsan P (1996) Biomass residues from palm oil mills in Thailand: an overview on quantity and potential usage. Biomass Bioenergy 11(5):387–395CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Promachotikool M, Doungpet M (1996) Wood products industry of Thailand. Asian Timber 7:20–24Google Scholar
  48. Qiu J (2009) Where the rubber meets the garden. Nature 457:246–247PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Ratnasingam J, Scholz F (2008) Yield studies of rubberwood lumber during rough milling operations. Eur J Wood Wood Prod 66(6):467–468CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Shigematsu A, Nobuya M, Kajisa T, Yoshida S (2010) Importance of rubberwood in wood export of Malaysia and Thailand. New For in press Google Scholar
  51. Smeets EMW, Faaij APC (2007) Bioenergy potentials from forestry in 2050: an assessment of the drivers that determine the potentials. Clim Change 81(3–4):353–390CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. SOFRECO (2007) Feasibility study of the National Smallhoder Rubber Plantations Development Project. Societe Francise de Realisation, d’Estudes et de Counseil (SOFRECO), ClichyGoogle Scholar
  53. Stone R (2008) Ecology: showdown looms over a biological treasure trove. Science 319(5870):1604PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Sylva (1992) Rubberwood availability in Southeast Asia: years 1992–2020. Sylva Future AB, JoenkoepingGoogle Scholar
  55. Top N, Mizoue N, Kai S (2004) Estimating forest biomass increment based on permanent sample plots in relation to woodfuel consumption: a case study in Kampong Thom province, Cambodia. J For Res 9:117–123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Toppinen A, Kuuluvainen J (2010) Forest sector modeling in Europe- the state of the art and future research directions. For Pol Econ 12:2–8Google Scholar
  57. USDS (2007) Background note: Cambodia. US Department of States, Washington, USA http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/2732.htm. Accessed 5 November 2010
  58. Varmola MI, Carle JB (2002) The importance of hardwood plantations in the tropics and sub-tropics. Int For Rev 4(2):110–121Google Scholar
  59. World Bank (1994) Revitalizing tree crops: rubber in Thailand. World Bank, Washington DCGoogle Scholar
  60. World Bank (2003) Cambodia: forest concession management and control pilot project (credit no. 3365-KH and trust fund. 26419-JPN). World Bank, Washington DCGoogle Scholar
  61. WWF-GFTN (2001) The Forest industry in the 21st century. World Wildlife Fund/Global Forest and Trade Network, GodalmingGoogle Scholar
  62. Ziegler AD, Fox JM, Xu J (2009) The rubber juggernaut. Science 324(5930):1024–1025PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Akira Shigematsu
    • 1
    Email author
  • Nobuya Mizoue
    • 1
  • Kumiko Ide
    • 1
  • Kakada Khun
    • 2
  • Muthavy Pheng
    • 2
  • Shigejiro Yoshida
    • 1
  • Katsuhisa Kohroki
    • 3
  • Noriko Sato
    • 1
  1. 1.Faculty of AgricultureKyushu UniversityFukuokaJapan
  2. 2.Rubber Development DepartmentGeneral Directorate of RubberPhnom PenhCambodia
  3. 3.Graduate School of Life and Envirommental SciencesUniversity of TsukubaTsukubaJapan

Personalised recommendations