The effect of carbon and nutrient loading during nursery culture on the growth of black spruce seedlings: a six-year field study
We tested the effects of exponential nutrient loading and springtime carbon loading during nursery culture on the field performance of black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill.) B.S.P.). Seedlings were grown from seed with a conventional, fixed dose fertilizer (10 mg N seedling−1) or an exponential nutrient loading regime (75 mg N seedling−1). The following spring, seedlings were exposed for two weeks to either ambient (370 ppm) or elevated levels of CO2 (800 ppm) and then planted in the field; seedling growth was followed for the next six years. Exponential nutrient loading increased seedling height, stem diameter and leader growth, with the largest increases in height and leader length occurring in the first three years after outplanting. Carbon loading increased seedling height and leader length, but only in seedlings that had been exponentially nutrient loaded. A combination of carbon and nutrient loading increased shoot height 26%, stem diameter 37% and leader length 40% over trees that received neither treatment. These results demonstrate that the growth enhancement seen under exponential nutrient loading is maintained under field conditions for at least six years. Carbon loading just before outplanting was a useful supplement to nutrient loading, but was ineffective in the absence of nutrient loading.
KeywordsNitrogen Exponential nutrient loading Fertilizer CO2 Picea mariana
We thank N. Deutsch, J. Fraser, J. Havey, A. Kamler, F. Kocacinar, S. Nagy, H. Olav and E. Somerville for field assistance and data management, and A. Adelbaum for the seedlings. This study was supported by NSERC strategic grant #STPGP 223962-99 to RFS.
- Campagna MA, Margolis HA (1989) Influence of short-term atmospheric CO2 enrichment on growth, allocation patterns, and biochemistry of black spruce seedlings at different stages of development. Can J For Res 19:773–782Google Scholar
- Grossnickle SC (2000) Ecophysiology of northern spruce species: the performance of planted seedlings. NRC Research Press, Ottawa, CanadaGoogle Scholar
- Malik V, Timmer VR (1995) Interaction of nutrient loaded black spruce seedlings with neighboring vegetation in greenhouse environments. Can J For Res 25:1017–1023Google Scholar
- Malik V, Timmer VR (1996) Growth, nutrient dynamics, and interspecific competition of nutrient-loaded black spruce seedlings on a boreal mixedwood site. Can J For Res 26:1651–1659Google Scholar
- Moore BD, Cheng SH, Sims D, et al (1999) The biochemical and molecular basis for photosynthetic acclimation to elevated atmospheric CO2. PCE 22:567–582Google Scholar
- Way DA, Sage RF (2004) Short-term exposure to elevated CO2 causes downwards regulation of photosynthesis in black spruce seedlings. In: A van der Est, D Bruce (eds) Photosynthesis: Fundamental Aspects to Global Perspectives. 13th International Congress of Photosynthesis, Montreal, 2004. Allen Press, 624–626Google Scholar