New Forests

, Volume 34, Issue 3, pp 307–312 | Cite as

The effect of carbon and nutrient loading during nursery culture on the growth of black spruce seedlings: a six-year field study

  • Danielle A. Way
  • Seth D. Seegobin
  • Rowan F. SageEmail author
Original Paper


We tested the effects of exponential nutrient loading and springtime carbon loading during nursery culture on the field performance of black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill.) B.S.P.). Seedlings were grown from seed with a conventional, fixed dose fertilizer (10 mg N seedling−1) or an exponential nutrient loading regime (75 mg  N seedling−1). The following spring, seedlings were exposed for two weeks to either ambient (370 ppm) or elevated levels of CO2 (800 ppm) and then planted in the field; seedling growth was followed for the next six years. Exponential nutrient loading increased seedling height, stem diameter and leader growth, with the largest increases in height and leader length occurring in the first three years after outplanting. Carbon loading increased seedling height and leader length, but only in seedlings that had been exponentially nutrient loaded. A combination of carbon and nutrient loading increased shoot height 26%, stem diameter 37% and leader length 40% over trees that received neither treatment. These results demonstrate that the growth enhancement seen under exponential nutrient loading is maintained under field conditions for at least six years. Carbon loading just before outplanting was a useful supplement to nutrient loading, but was ineffective in the absence of nutrient loading.


Nitrogen Exponential nutrient loading Fertilizer CO2 Picea mariana 



We thank N. Deutsch, J. Fraser, J. Havey, A. Kamler, F. Kocacinar, S. Nagy, H. Olav and E. Somerville for field assistance and data management, and A. Adelbaum for the seedlings. This study was supported by NSERC strategic grant #STPGP 223962-99 to RFS.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Danielle A. Way
    • 1
  • Seth D. Seegobin
    • 1
  • Rowan F. Sage
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Ecology and Evolutionary BiologyUniversity of TorontoTorontoCanada

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