New Forests

, Volume 34, Issue 2, pp 123–141 | Cite as

Stand Density Control Diagrams for Scots pine and Austrian black pine plantations in Bulgaria

  • Tatiana Vassileva Stankova
  • Masato Shibuya


Stand Density Control Diagram (SDCD) is a stand-level mathematical model, which describes the relationships between yield, density and mortality throughout all stages of stand development. The SDCD is primarily used to derive density control schedules by management objectives. The main objectives of the present study are to define a modified model of SDCD for application to Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Austrian black pine (Pinus nigra Arn.) plantations in Bulgaria, to examine the fitness of the model with representative experimental data sets from plantations of both species and to present a way of direct application of the SDCDs for practical purposes. The constructed SDCDs characterize the spatial-temporal dynamics of the pine plantations in a broad range of densities, forest sites and growth stages from 4 to 26 (28) m of dominant height class. The full density lines were fixed with self-thinning exponents α = 1.69 and α = 1.75 for Scots pine and Austrian black pine, respectively, and the trajectories of natural thinning for 23 initial densities (444-40000/ha) were determined. A direct way for application of the SDCDs to the plantation management was designed to estimate the optimal initial densities for the maximum attainable final yield and large-size wood production by self-thinning stands.


Natural thinning trajectory Plantation density Stand management Self-thinning Yield–density relationship 



The authors are grateful to the financing authorities of the present study: the Bulgarian–Swiss Forestry Program and the Bulgarian Ministry of Education and Science and to the work teams involved in performance of the fieldwork. Gratitude is also owed to the Forest Research Institute of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences for the presented data from the research reports.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Forest Genetics, Physiology and PlantationsForest Research Institute of Bulgarian Academy of SciencesSofiaBulgaria
  2. 2.Faculty of AgricultureHokkaido UniversitySapporoJapan

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