Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Ethnic Features of Sleep Disorders in Women in the Climacteric Period

Objectives. To assess the features of sleep disorders in europeoid and mongoloid women in different phases of the climacteric period. Materials and methods. A total of 542 women in the climacteric period at age 45–60 years were studied: 342 were of the europeoid race (ethnic group – Russian) and 200 were of the mongoloid race (ethnic group – Buryats). All women underwent examination by a gynecologist, with general clinical assessment and analysis of medical records. Diagnoses of insomnia and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) were made in accordance with questionnaire results using specialist somnology questionnaires and polysomnographic monitoring. Results and conclusions. The prevalence of sleep disorders in Russian women in the perimenopausal period was 61.2%, compared with 65.5% in the postmenopausal period; among Buryats, 63.5% had sleep disorders in the perimenopausal period and 72.9% in the postmenopausal period. The structure of sleep disorders in Russian women in the perimenopause period was dominated by difficulty in going to sleep (69.4%) and morning waking (63.5%), while in the menopause the structure consisted mainly of frequent nocturnal waking (83.5%) and OSAS (48.9%). In Buryats, the structure of sleep disorders was independent of the phase of the climacteric, with complaints most frequently consisting of nocturnal waking (69.5% in the perimenopause and 76.9% in the postmenopausal period). Interethnic differences in complaints of sleep disorders were seen only in the perimenopausal period. The sleep pattern demonstrated decreases in measures of sleep effectiveness and changes in the content of rapid eye movement sleep in women of the Buryat ethnic group as compared with members of the Russian ethnic group. furthermore, ethnic Buryat women had a higher index of apnea/hypopnea and a lower mean oxygensaturation. Thus, formation of sleep disorders in women in different phases of the climacteric period has ethnogenetic characteristics.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.


  1. 1.

    I. I. Dedov and S. Yu. Kalinchenko, Age-Related Androgen Defi ciency in Men, Praktich. Meditsina, Moscow (2006).

  2. 2.

    S. V. Yureneva LM. Il’ina, and V. P. Smetnik, “Aging of the reproductive system of women: from theory to clinical practice. Part I. Endocrine and clinical characteristics of the stages of reproductive aging in women,” Akush. Ginekol., 3, 21–27 (2014).

  3. 3.

    Q. Xu and C. P. Lang, “Examining the relationship between subjective sleep disturbance and menopause: a systematic review and meta- analysis,” Menopause, 21, No. 12, 1301–1318 (2014), https://doi.org/10.1097/GME.0000000000000240.

  4. 4.

    P. D. Bliese, N. J. Wesensten, and T. J. Balkin, “Age and individual variability in performance during sleep restriction,” J. Sleep Res., 15, No. 4, 376–385 (2006).

  5. 5.

    A. M. Spaeth, N. Goel, and D. F. Dinges, “Managing neurobehavioral capability when social expediency trumps biological imperatives,” Prog. Brain Res., 199, 377–398 (2012), https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-444-59427-3.00021-6.

  6. 6.

    R. Singareddy, A. N. Vgontzas, J. Fernandez-Mendoza, et al., “Risk factors for incident chronic insomnia: a general population prospective study,” Sleep Med., 13, No. 4, 346–353 (2012), https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sleep.2011.10.033.

  7. 7.

    E. Megan, R. Petrov, A. J. Letter, et al., “Self-reported sleep duration in relation to incident stroke symptoms: nuances by body mass and race from the REGARDS study,” J. Stroke Cerebrovasc. Dis., 23, No. 2, 123–132 (2014), https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jstrokecerebrovasdis.2013.09.009.

  8. 8.

    E.-O. Im, K. Young, E. Chee, and W. Chee, “A cluster analysis on midlife women’s sleep-related symptoms: racial/ethnic differences,” Menopause, 22, No. 11, 1182–1189 (2015), https://doi.org/10.1097/GME.0000000000000460.

  9. 9.

    H. M. Kravitz, E. Avery, M. F. Sowers, et al., “Relationships between menopausal and mood symptoms and EEG sleep measures in a multi-ethnic sample of middle-aged women: the SWAN Sleep Study,” Sleep, 34, No. 9, 1221–1232 (2011), https://doi.org/10.5665/SLEEP.1244.

  10. 10.

    A. R. Ramos, W. K. Wohlgemuth, and C. Dong, “Race-ethnic differences of sleep symptoms in an elderly multi-ethnic cohort: the Northern Manhattan Study,” Neuroepidemiology, 37, 210–215 (2011), https://doi.org/10.1159/000334315.

  11. 11.

    L. I. Kolesnikova, T. A. Bairova, O. A. Pervushina, and L. A. Grebenkina, “Association of (192) q>r polymorphism of the paraoxonase gene with a lipid profile and components of lipid peroxidation and antioxidant protection in populations of Russians and Buryats from Eastern Siberia,” Russ. J. Genet., 51, No. 2, 193–197 (2015), https://doi.org/10.1134/S102279541502009X.

  12. 12.

    L. I. Kolesnikova, М. А. Darenskaya, L. A. Grebenkina, et al., “Activity of lipid peroxidation in infertile women from different populations,” Bull. Exp. Biol. Med., 154, No. 2, 203–205 (2012), https://doi.org/10.1007/s10517-012-1912-4.

  13. 13.

    N. P. Rinchindorzhieva, Z. Yu. Darzhaev, and L. V. Suturina, “The epidemiology of infertility in the Republic of Buryatiya,” Sibir. Med. Zh. (Irkutsk), 5, 53–58 (2007).

  14. 14.

    I. M. Madaeva and L. I. Kolesnikova, “Sleep disorders in the internal diseases clinic,” Acta Biomedica Sci., 2, 14–17 (2003).

  15. 15.

    International Classifi cation of Sleep Disorders, American Academy of Sleep Medicine, Darien (2014), 3rd ed.

  16. 16.

    M. G. Poluektov, R. V. Buzunov, V. M. Averbukh, et al., “Draft clinical guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of chronic insomnia in adults,” Nevrol. Revmatol., Suppl. to Consil. Medicum, No. 2, 41–51 (2016).

  17. 17.

    Yu. A. Aleksandrovskii and A. M. Vein (eds.), Sleep Disorders, Med. Inform. Agentstvo, St. Petersburg (1995).

  18. 18.

    M. A. Tarasova and M. I. Yarmolinskaya, Principles of Individual Selection of Hormone Replacement Therapy in the Peri- and Postmenopause: Guidelines for Doctors, N.-L., St. Petersburg (2006).

  19. 19.

    M. W. Johns, “New method for measuring daytime sleepiness: the Epworth sleepiness scale,” Sleep, 14, 540–545 (1991).

  20. 20.

    A. M. Vein, T. S. Eligulashvili, and M. G. Poluektov, Sleep Apnea Syndrome, Eidos Media, Moscow (2002).

  21. 21.

    P. J. Murphy, and S. S. Campbell, “Sex hormones, sleep, and core body temperature in older postmenopausal women,” Sleep, 30, No. 12, 1788–1794 (2007), https://doi.org/10.1093/sleep/30.12.1788.

  22. 22.

    B. M. Appelhans, I. Janssen, J. F. Cursio, et al., “Sleep duration and weight change in midlife women: the SWAN sleep study,” Obesity (Silver Spring), 21, No. 1, 77–84 (2013), https://doi.org/10.1002/oby.20251.

  23. 23.

    H. Joffe, A. Massler, and K. M. Sharkey, “Evaluation and management of sleep disturbance during the menopause transition,” Semin. Reprod. Med., 28, 404–421 (2010), https://doi.org/10.1055/s-0030-1262900.

  24. 24.

    J. A. Floyd, J. J. Janisse, E. S. Jenuwine, and J. W. Ager, “Changes in REM-sleep percentage over the adult lifespan,” Sleep, 30, No. 7, 829–836 (2007), https://doi.org/10.1093/sleep/30.7.829.

  25. 25.

    T. Young, D. Rabago, A. Zgierska, et al., “Objective and subjective sleep quality in premenopausal, perimenopausal, and postmenopausal women in the Wisconsin Sleep Cohort Study,” Sleep, 26, No. 6, 667–672 (2003), https://doi.org/10.1093/sleep/26.6.667.

  26. 26.

    G. W. Pien, M. D. Sammel, E. W. Freeman, et al., “Predictors of sleep quality in women in the menopausal transition,” Sleep, 31, No. 7, 991–999 (2008), https://doi.org/10.5665/sleep/31.7.991.

  27. 27.

    B. A. Phillips, and D. Mannino, “Correlates of sleep complaints in adults: The ARIC Study,” J. Clin. Sleep Med., 1, 277–283 (2005).

  28. 28.

    F. Guidozzi, “Sleep and sleep disorders in menopausal women,” Climacteric, 16, 214–219 (2013), https://doi.org/10.3109/13697137.2012.753873.

  29. 29.

    S. Y. Fu, D. Anderson, and M. Courtney, “Cross-cultural menopausal experience: comparison of Australian and Taiwanese women,” Nurs. Health Sci., 5, 77–84 (2012), https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1442-2018.2003.00139.x.

  30. 30.

    K. F. Chung and M. K. Tang, “Subjective sleep disturbance and its correlates in middle-aged Hong Kong Chinese women,” Maturitas, 53, 396–404 (2006), https://doi.org/10.1016/j.maturitas.2005.07.001.

  31. 31.

    J.-T. Сhe and К. Kotani, “Serum γ-glutamyltranspeptidase and oxidative stress in subjectively healthy women: an association with menopausal stages,” Aging Clin. Exp. Res., 28, No. 4, 619–624 (2016), https://doi.org/10.1007/s40520-013-0176-9.

  32. 32.

    I. M. Madaeva, O. N. Berdina, L. I. Kolesnikova, et al., “Ethnic characteristics of sleep disorders in Eastern Siberia,” Byull. VSNTs SO RAMN, 4, No. 92, 51–55 (2013).

  33. 33.

    C. O’Connor, K. S. Thornley, and P. J. Hanly, “Gender differences in the polysomnographic features of obstructive sleep apnea,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med., 161, No. 5, 1465–1472 (2000), https://doi.org/10.1164/ajrccm.161.5.9904121.

  34. 34.

    P. Polo-Kantola, “Sleep problems in midlife and beyond,” Maturitas, 68, 224–232 (2011), https://doi.org/10.1016/j.maturitas.2010.12.009.

  35. 35.

    T. Young, М. Palta, and J. Dempsey, “The occurrence of sleep-disordered breathing among middle-aged adults,” New Engl. J. Med., 328, 1230–1235 (2003), https://doi.org/10.1056/nejm199304293281704

  36. 36.

    R. R. Freedman and T. Roehrs, “Lack of sleep disturbance from menopausal hot flashes,” Fertil. Steril., 82, 138–144 (2004), https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fertnstert.2003.12.029.

Download references

Author information

Correspondence to I. M. Madaeva.

Additional information

Translated from Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii imeni S. S. Korsakova, Vol. 119, No. 4, Iss. 2, Insomnia, pp. 44–49, April, 2019.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Madaeva, I.M., Semenova, N.V. & Kolesnikova, L.I. Ethnic Features of Sleep Disorders in Women in the Climacteric Period. Neurosci Behav Physi (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11055-020-00896-0

Download citation


  • sleep
  • insomnia
  • apnea
  • ethnics
  • perimenopause
  • postmenopause