Neuroscience and Behavioral Physiology

, Volume 50, Issue 1, pp 73–80 | Cite as

Novel Approaches to the Molecular Mapping of the Brain: 3D Cyclic Immunohistochemistry and Optical Clearing

  • O. I. EfimovaEmail author
  • P. M. Balaban
  • F. E. Khaitovich

This review considers the current methods required for functional mapping of neural networks in 3D space with cellular resolution. Cyclic immunohistochemistry approaches and immunohistochemical staining methods for thick nervous tissue preparations are described in detail, along with approaches to clearing large brain formations to allow signals to be visualized at great depth. The main advantages and disadvantages of their use are considered. Perspectives for the development of molecular mapping for studies of the neural substrates of cognitive functions in health and disease are discussed.


molecular brain mapping 3D immunohistochemistry cyclic immunohistochemistry optical clearing immediate early genes 


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • O. I. Efimova
    • 1
    Email author
  • P. M. Balaban
    • 2
  • F. E. Khaitovich
    • 1
  1. 1.Life Science CenterSkolkovo Institute of Science and TechnologyMoscowRussia
  2. 2.Laboratory for the Cellular Neurobiology of Learning, Institute of Higher Nervous Activity and NeurophysiologyRussian Academy of SciencesMoscowRussia

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