Photopharmacology: A Brief Review Using the Control of Potassium Channels as an Example
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Photopharmacology is an area based on the creation of chemical compounds able to control the functioning of biological molecules using light. Photochromic compounds which activate or inhibit the activity of key cellular proteins, particularly ion channels, depending on the wavelength of the light, are powerful tools for noninvasive control of neural networks and, thus, for controlling the organs and behavior of animals. Photochromic substances can be divided into two main classes: (a) soluble photochromic ligands and (b) compounds covalently binding to target proteins, or tethered photochromic ligands. Potassium channel blockers, modulators of glutamate and GABA receptors, and cationic TRP channels have been created on this basis. Photopharmacology opens up the potential for controlling pain, restoring the photosensitivity of the retina, and controlling other physiological functions. This minireview will briefly present the main principles of the organization and actions of light-controlled switches, along with a description of photochromic chemical compounds able to modulate the activity of voltage-gated ion channels, and present preliminary investigations on the creation of photopharmacological compounds for therapeutic use.
Keywordsphotopharmacology synthetic light-sensitive compounds voltage-gated channels photochromic ligands potassium channels
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