Neuroscience and Behavioral Physiology

, Volume 49, Issue 1, pp 7–12 | Cite as

Interaction between Anxiety and Sleep in Experimental Studies and Clinical Practice

  • E. V. VerbitskiiEmail author

High anxiety is a personality features which is largely genetically determined and is due to the functioning of the limbic system and the activity of cerebral formations involved in maintaining waking and the development of sleep. Analysis of experiments on animals and clinical observations indicates that this feature, determining an individual’s own responses, promotes the development of anxiety and anxiety disorders which, due to suppression of GABA-benzodiazepine inhibitory influences, has adverse effects on the duration and quality of nocturnal sleep. Phenazepam, acting via its anxiolytic properties, inactivates foci of arousal in the nervous system, countering the negative manifestations of anxiety, resulting in a somnogenic action which normalizes sleep impairments.


anxiety anxiousness sleep sleep quality phenazepam benzodiazepine receptors anxiolytics 


  1. 1.
    A. Golbin, H. Kraviyz, and L. Keith, Sleep Psychiatry, Taylor & Francis, London, New York (2004).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    E. V. Verbitskii, Sleep and Anxiety, Southern Scientific Center, Russian Academy of Sciences, Rostov-on-Don (2008).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Yu. A. Aleksandrovskii, Borderline Mental Disorders, Meditsina, Moscow (1993).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    M. W. Eysenck, “Anxiety and attention,” Anx. Res., 1, 9–15 (1988).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    P. V. Simonov, Lectures on the Operation of the Brain. A Needs-Information Theory of Higher Mental Activity, Institute of Psychology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (1998).Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    R. V. Buzunov, Sleeplessness in Clinical Practice. Textbook,
  7. 7.
    A. V. Kaluev, Stress, Anxiety, and Behavior: Current Problems in the Modeling of Anxiety Behavior in Animals, Kiev State University Press, Kiev (1998).Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    A. V. Kaluev, Grooming and Stress, AVIKS Press, Moscow (2002).Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    M. A. Deryagina and M. L. Butovskaya, Primate Ethology, Moscow Sate University Press, Moscow (1992).Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Yu. L. Khanin, A Brief Handbook on the Use of Reactive and Endogenous Anxiety Scales, LNIITEK Press, Moscow (1976).Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    C. D. Spielberger, R. L. Gorsuch, and R. E. Lushene, STAI Manual for the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Consulting Psychology Press Palo Alto, New York (1970).Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    H. Heckhausen, Motivation and Activity [Russian translation], Mir, Moscow (1986).Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    E. V. Verbitskii, The Psychopharmacology of Anxiety, Rostov State University Press, Rostov-on-Don (2003).Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    A. Kalueff and J. LaPorte, Experimental Animal Models in Neurobehavioral Research, NOVA Science, New York (2009).Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    E. L. Hartmann, The Functions of Sleep, Yale University Press, New Haven and London (1973).Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    V. M. Koval’zon, Basic Somnology, BINOM Press, Moscow (2011).Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    V. M. Koval’zon and V. V. Dolgikh, “Regulation of the sleep-waking cycle,” Nevrol. Zh., 6, 316–322 (2016), Scholar
  18. 18.
    V. M. Kovalzon, “Ascending reticular activating system of the brain,” Transl. Neurosci. Clin., 2, No. 4, 275–285 (2016), Scholar
  19. 19.
    P. S. Kupalov, Mechanisms of Closing Temporal Links in Health and Pathology, Meditsina, Moscow (1978).Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    A. Borbely, O. Hayaishi, T. Sejnowski, and J. Altman, The Regulation of Sleep, Human Frontier Science Program: Strasbourg (2000).Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    A. M. Petrov and A. R. Giniatullin, The Neurobiology of Sleep: a Current View: Textbook, Kazan State Medical University, Kazan (2012).Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Benzodiazepines: Good Practice Guidelines for Clinicians, All Ireland Public Health Repository, Department of Health (Ireland) (2002), last upd. 12.21.2016,
  23. 23.
    S. L. Kuznetsov and M. A. Afanas’ev, “Importance of the early response gene c-fos and its expression products in neurons in various conditions,” Biomeditsina, 1, No. 1, 109–116 (2013).Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Ya. I. Levin and M. G. Poluektov, Somnology and Sleep Medicine. Selected Lectures, Medforum, Moscow (2013).Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    M. G. Poluektov, Somnology and Sleep Medicine: National Guidelines in Memory of A. M. Vein and Ya. I. Levin, Medforum, Moscow (2016).Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    M. H. Kryger, T. Roth, and W. C. Dement, Principles and Practice of Sleep Medicine, Elsevier, Philadelphia (2016).Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Yu. Yu. Sysoeva and E. V. Verbitskii, “Individual cyclical changes in δ activity in the brain during slow-wave sleep in humans,” Dok. Akad. Nauk, 444, No. 1, 1–5 (2012).Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Yu. Sysoeva and E. Verbitsky, “The combination of high trait anxiety and female sex is vulnerability factor for sleep disturbances,” in: Trait and State Anxiety: Assessment, Predictor and Outcomes, Nova Publishers, New York (2016), Library of Congress Control No. 2016933393, ISBN: 978-1-63484-860-2 (eBook),
  29. 29.
    Yu. Yu. Sysoeva and E. V. Verbitskii, “The nature of activation of the brain during nocturnal sleep is associated with individual endogenous anxiety,” Dokl. Akad. Nauk., 461, No. 2, 1–3 (2015).Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Yu. Yu. Arapova, A. I. Shikhliarova, E. V. Verbitsky, E. E. Rostorguev, N. S. Kuznetsova, and T. P. Protasova, “Electroencephalographic activity of wakefulness and sleep associated with primary brain tumors in human: a pilot study,” J. Sleep Med. Disord., 3, No. 7, 1068–1075 (2016).Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    E. V. Verbitskii, “Anxiety and sleep,” Zh. Vyssh. Nerv. Deyat., 63, No. 1, 6–12 (2013).Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    V. M. Koval’zon, Sleep Neurophysiology and Neurochemistry: National Guidelines in Memory of A. M. Vein and Ya. I. Levin, M. G. Poluektov (ed.), Medforum, Moscow (2016), pp. 11–55.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    S. B. Seredin, T. A. Voronina, G. G. Neznamov, and V. P. Zherdev, Phenazepam: 25 Years in Medical Practice, Nauka, Moscow (2007).Google Scholar
  34. 34.

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Arid Zones, Southern Scientific CenterRussian Academy of SciencesRostov-on-DonRussia

Personalised recommendations