Neuroscience and Behavioral Physiology

, Volume 41, Issue 1, pp 47–51 | Cite as

Efficacy and safety of choline alphoscerate (cereton) in patients with parkinson’s disease with cognitive impairments

  • O. S. Levin
  • L. A. Batukaeva
  • M. A. Anikina
  • N. A. Yunishchenko

An open 10-day study in which the therapeutic actions of Cereton were compared with those of piracetam was performed. Cereton was used in 40 patients (experimental group) at a dose of 1000 mg, while piracetam was used in 20 patients at a dose of 2000 mg; both agents were given as intravenous infusions in 200 ml of physiological saline on the background of antiparkinsonism agents. Patients’ status was evaluated using a complex of psychometric scales and neuropsychological tests, along with tools to assess the severity of the main symptoms of parkinsonism, side effects, and quality of life. Use of Cereton produced marked and moderate improvements in the state of cognitive functions more frequently than piracetam (40% and 25%, respectively), while the incidence of deterioration was lower (5% and 15%, p < 0.05). Cereton was very well tolerated by the patients: brief and short-term side effects were seen in only six patients (15%).

Key Words

Parkinson’s disease cognitive impairments correction Cereton (choline alphoscerate) 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Zh. M. Glozman, Quantitative Assessment of Neuropsychological Study Data [in Russian], Moscow (1999).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    V. V. Zakharov, I. V. Damulin, and N. N. Yakhno, “Cognitive impairments in patients with Parkinson’s disease,” Zh. Nevrol. Psikhiat., 1, 13–19 (2005).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    O. S. Levin, “Mental disorders in patients with Parkinson’s disease and their correction,” in: Extrapyramidal Disorders. Handbook for Diagnosis and Treatment [in Russian], Medpress-Inform, Moscow (2002), pp. 125–151.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    O. S. Levin and N. V. Fedorova, Parkinson’s Disease [in Russian], Moscow (2006).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    O. S. Levin, L. A. Batukaeva, and I. G. Smolentseva, “Diagnosis and treatment of dementia in Parkinson’s disease,” Zh. Nevrol. Psikhiat., 6, 85–91 (2008).Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    I. V. Litvinenko, Parkinson’s Disease [in Russian], Moscow (2006).Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    A. R. Luriya, Higher Cortical Functions in Humans and theirImpairments in Local Brain Lesions [in Russian], Moscow State University, Moscow (1969).Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    A. Yu. Panasyuk, An Adapted Variant of the Wechsler Test [in Russian], Research Institute Psychiatry, Moscow (1983).Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    D. Aarsland, K. Andersen, J. P. Larsen, et al., “Prevalence and characteristics of dementia in Parkinson disease: an 8-year prospective study,” Arch. Neurol., 60, 387–392 (2003).CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    F. Amenta, L. Parnetti,V. Gallasi, et al., “Treatment of cognitive dysfunction associated with Alzheimer disease with cholinergic precursors,” Mech. Aging Dev., 122, 2025 (2001).CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    R. Brooks, R. Rabin, and F. de Charro, The Measurement and Valuation of Health Status Using EQ-5D, Kluwer Academic Publishers (2003).Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    J. L. Cummings, Cholinesterase inhibitors for treatment of dementia associated with Parkinson’s disease,” J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiat., 76, 903–904 (2005).CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    M. Emre, D. Aarsland, A. Albanese, et al., “Rivastigmine for dementia associated with Parkinson’s disease,” New Engl. J. Med., 351, 2509–2518 (2004).CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    M. Emre, D. Aarsland, R. Brown, et al., “Clinical diagnostic criteria for dementia associated with Parkinson disease,” Mov. Dis., 22, 1689–1707 (2007).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    S. Fahn and R. L. Elton, “Unified Rating Scale for Parkinson’s Disease,” in: Recent developments in Parkinson’s Disease, S. Fahn and C. D. Marsden (eds.), Macmillan, Florham Park, New York, pp. 153–163.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    M. F. Folstein, S. E. Folstein, and P. R. McHugh, Mini-mental status,” J. Psychiat. Res., 12, 189–196 (1975).CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    W. Gibb and A. Lees, “The relevance of the Lewy body to the pathogenesis of idiopathic Parkinson’s disease,” J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiat., 51, 745–752 (1988).CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    M. A. Hely, J. G. Morris, W. G. Reid, et al., “Sydney multicenter study of Parkinson’s disease,” Mov. Dis., 23, 837–844 (2008).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    M. Hoehn and M. D. Jahr, “Parkinsonism: onset, progression and mortality,” Neurology, 17, No. 5, 427–442 (1967).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    H. Lehfeld and H. Erzigkeit, “The SKT-A Short Cognitive Performance Test for Assessing Deficits of Memory and Attention,” Int. Psychogeriat., 9, 115–121 (1997).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    P. J. Manos and R. Wu, “The ten point clock test,” Int. J. Psych. Med., 24, 229–244 (1994).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    L. Parnetti, F. Mignini, D. Tomasssoni, et al., “Cholinergic precursors in the treatment of cognitive impairment of vascular origin,” J. Neurol. Sci., 257, 264–269 (2007).CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    E. Perry, M. Walker, J. Grace, and R. Perry, “Acetylcholine in mind: a neurotransmitter correlate of consciousness?” Trends Neurosci., 22, 273–280 (1999).CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    S. E. Starkstein and M. Merello, Psychiatric and Cognitive Disorders in Parkinson’s Disease, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (2002).CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • O. S. Levin
    • 1
  • L. A. Batukaeva
    • 1
  • M. A. Anikina
    • 1
  • N. A. Yunishchenko
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of NeurologyRussian Postgraduate Medical Academy; Center for Extrapyramidal DiseasesMoscowRussia

Personalised recommendations