Neuroscience and Behavioral Physiology

, Volume 37, Issue 4, pp 349–353 | Cite as

Age-related characteristics of the neurotransmitter composition of neurons in the stellate ganglion

  • P. M. Maslyukov
  • A. D. Nozdrachev
  • J.-P. Timmermans


The neurotransmitter composition of neurons in the stellate ganglion of rats of different ages (neonatal, 10, 20, 30, and 60 days) was studied by an immunocytochemical method using double labeling. Most neurons in rat pups of all age groups contained tyrosine hydroxylase. Most choline acetyltransferase-positive neurocytes in neonatal and 10-day-old rat pups were also tyrosine hydroxylase-positive. Only occasional cells in 30-and 60-day rat pups contained both of these enzymes. There were increases in the proportions of cells containing tyrosine hydroxylase and neuropeptide Y from birth to all time points of the study. In addition, there was a decrease in the proportion of somatostatin-positive neurons. The proportions of VIP-positive cells and choline acetyltransferase-containing neurons increased to age 10 days and then decreased. Somatostatin-positive neurons in all rat pups were small cells, while those containing choline acetyltransferase were large. Maturation of the neurotransmitter set in the rat stellate ganglion was complete by the end of the second month of life.

Key words

sympathetic nervous system stellate ganglion immunocytochemistry ontogenesis 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    A. D. Nozdrachev, “The chemical structure of a peripheral autonomic (visceral) reflex,” Usp. Fiziol. Nauk., 27, No. 2, 28–60 (1996).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    A. D. Nozdrachev and A. V. Yantsev, Autonomic Transmission [in Russian], St. Petersburg (1995).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    A. D. Nozdrachev and M. M. Fateev, The Stellate Ganglion. Structure and Function [in Russian], St. Petersburg (2002).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    V. S. Sheveleva, Evolution of the Functions of the Sympathetic Ganglia in Ontogenesis [in Russian], Leningrad (1977).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    A. G. M. Bullock, “Somatostatin enhances neurite outgrowth and electrical coupling of regenerating neurons in Helisoma,” Brain Res., 412, 6–17 (1987).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    P. Cochard, M. Goldstein, and I. B. Black, “Initial development of the noradrenergic phenotype in autonomic neuroblasts of the rat embryo in vivo,” Dev. Biol., 71, 109–114 (1979).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    H. H. Dale and W. Feldberg, “The chemical transmission of secretory impulses to the sweat glands of the cat,” J. Physiol., 82, 121–128 (1934).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    U. Ernsberger, “The development of postganglionic sympathetic neurons: coordinating neuronal differentiation and diversification,” Auton. Neurosci. Basic Clin., 94, 1–13 (2001).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    U. Ernsberger and H. Rohrer, “Development of the cholinergic neurotransmitter phenotype in postganglionic sympathetic neurons,” Cell Tiss. Res., 297, 339–361 (1999).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    U. S. von Euler, “A specific sympathomimetic ergone in sympathetic nerve fibers (sympathin) and its relation to adrenaline and noradrenaline,” Acta Physiol. Scand., 12, 73–97 (1946).Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    J. B. Furness, J. L. Morris, I. L. Gibbins, and M. Costa, “Chemical coding of neurons and plurichemical transmission,” Ann. Rev. Pharmacol. Toxicol., 29, 289–306 (1989).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    I. L. Gibbins, “Vasocomotor, pilomotor and secretomotor neurons distinguished by size and neuropeptide content in superior cervical ganglia of mice,” J. Auton. Nerve Syst., 34, 171–183 (1991).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    L. Klimaschewski, W. Kummer, and C. Heym, “Localization, regulation and function of neurotransmitters and neuromodulators in cervical sympathetic ganglia,” Microsc. Res. Tech., 35, 44–68 (1996).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    P. M. Masliukov, V. A. Pankov, A. A. Strelkov, E. A. Masliukova, V. V. Shilkin, and A. D. Nozdrachev, “Morphological features of neurons innervating different viscera in the cat stellate ganglion in postnatal ontogenesis,” Aut. Neurosci. Basic Clin., 84, 169–175 (2000).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    P. M. Masliukov, V. V. Shilkin, A. D. Nozdrachev, and J.-P. Timmermans, “Histochemical features of neurons in the cat stellate ganglion during postnatal ontogenesis,” Aut. Neurosci. Basic Clin., 106, 84–90 (2003).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    M. A. Morales, K. Holmberg, Z. Q. Xu, C. Cozzari, B. K. Hartman, P. Emson, M. Goldstein, L. G. Elfvin, and T. Hokfelt, “Localization of choline acetyltransferase in rat peripheral sympathetic neurons and its coexistence with nitric oxide synthase and neuropeptides,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 92, 11819–11823 (1995).Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    D. W. Pincus, E. M. DiCicco-Bloom, and I. B. Black, “Vasoactive intestinal peptide regulates mitosis, differentiation and survival of cultured sympathetic neuroblasts,” Nature, 343, 564–567 (1990).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    V. Roudenok, “Changes in the expression of neuropeptide Y (NPY) during maturation of human sympathetic ganglionic neurons: correlations with tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity,” Ann. Anat., 182, 515–519 (2000).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    H. M. Young, R. B. Anderson, and C. R. Anderson, “Guidance cues involved in the development of the peripheral autonomic nervous system,” Aut. Neurosci. Basic Clin., 112, 1–14 (2004).CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • P. M. Maslyukov
    • 1
  • A. D. Nozdrachev
    • 2
  • J.-P. Timmermans
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Normal PhysiologyYaroslavl State Medical AcademyYaroslavlRussia
  2. 2.Department of General PhysiologySt. Petersburg State UniversitySt. PetersburgRussia
  3. 3.Laboratory of Cell Biology and Histology, Department of Biomedical SciencesUniversity of AntwerpAntwerpBelgium

Personalised recommendations