Evaluation of Seasonal Changes in Physico-chemical and Bacteriological Characteristics of Water from the Narmada River (India) Using Multivariate Analysis
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- Sharma, A., Bora, C.R. & Shukla, V. Nat Resour Res (2013) 22: 283. doi:10.1007/s11053-013-9204-x
The river Narmada is a major source of fresh water for the highly populated areas, predominantly the rural populations in Madhya Pradesh (Central India) and Gujarat (Western India). Modernization and industrialization in these areas have become a matter of concern due to changing environment and increasing social activities that influence the quality of water directly or indirectly. This investigation was undertaken to evaluate the quality of water along the banks of the river Narmada at different sampling sites using physico-chemical and bacteriological methods. The samples collected were analyzed per standard method parameters and were measured in situ. The correlation matrix indicated strong mutual dependency between the measured parameters (P < 0.05). Principal components analysis of the data indicates that two components (PC1 and PC2) influence the water quality to the extent of 57.4, 64.5 and 61.0% during rainy, winter and summer seasons, respectively. The mean values of the physico-chemical parameters of the river water samples were consistently higher than the levels certified by the World Health Organization and other regulatory bodies as polluted water. The presence of coliform bacteria in the water samples warrants for proper measures to reduce the pollution at point sources and requires proper remediation strategies to combat contamination in the river water.