NaCl and oxalic acid–assisted solvothermal exfoliation of edge-oxidized graphite to produce organic graphene dispersion for transparent conductive film application

  • Miaomiao BaiEmail author
  • Wei Wu
  • Lingna Liu
  • Jianfeng ChenEmail author
  • Xiangrong Ma
  • Yu Meng
Research Paper


Here, we demonstrate a facile method to prepare dispersible few-layer graphene sheets (GSs) by NaCl and oxalic acid–assisted solvothermal exfoliation of edge-oxidized graphite (EOG) in presence of polyvinylpyrrolidone under the synergetic effect of short-time ultrasonication. During solvothermal heating process, NaCl, oxalic acid, and PVP adsorbed on the edge/surface of EOG, and oxalic acid decomposed into CO2, CO, and H2O steam weakening the Van der Waals force between sheet layers of EOG. The solvothermal process results in the exfoliation and reduction of EOG to GSs which can be dispersed in various organic solvents with high concentrations (0.10–2.68 mg/mL) and remained stable for 6 months except dimethyl sulfoxide and acetonitrile. The GS film prepared by vacuum filtration method using EtOH phase GS dispersion had a sheet resistance of 28.0 kΩ/□ at a transparency of 81.2%. This method shows great promise for mass synthesis of few-layer graphene dispersions for thin film applications.


Salt Oxalic acid Organic dispersions Thin film Solvothermal exfoliation Nanostructured layer 



Thanks are due to Dr. Yibo Zhao for assistance with the experiments and valuable discussion.

Funding information

This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 51762042), PhD Research Startup Foundation of Yulin University (No. 17GK12 and No. 17GK13), and Young Talent Support Program of Shanxi Province University Science Association (No. 20180608).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Low Metamorphic Coal Clean Utilization, School of Chemistry and Chemical EngineeringYulin UniversityYulinChina
  2. 2.Research Center of the Ministry of Education for High Gravity Engineering and TechnologyBeijing University of Chemical TechnologyBeijingChina
  3. 3.State Key Laboratory of Organic-Inorganic CompositesBeijing University of Chemical TechnologyBeijingChina

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