Advertisement

TiO2 nanotube arrays modified with nanoparticles of platinum group metals (Pt, Pd, Ru): enhancement on photoelectrochemical performance

  • Fang Li
  • Haibao Huang
  • Guisheng Li
  • Dennis Y. C. LeungEmail author
Research Paper
  • 36 Downloads

Abstract

Highly ordered TiO2 nanotube arrays (TiO2 NTs) were synthesized by anodization method using a titanium foil and further modified with nanoparticles (Ø = 2~10 nm) of three platinum group metals (that is, platinum, palladium, and ruthenium) through potentiostatic pulsed electrodeposition method to obtain the composite material. Compared with pure TiO2 NTs, all the three composite samples (M-TiO2 NTs, M = Pt, Pd, Ru) showed different enhancement effects on the light responses, as well as different photoelectrochemical performances. In this study, the performance of M-TiO2 NTs, which worked as photoanode and cathode, was investigated. Ru-TiO2 exhibited the best degradation yield (~ 85.8%) when applied as photoanode under visible light illumination, which indicated the platinum group metal could also be induced under visible irradiation, not just served as the co-catalyst. M-TiO2 NTs as cathode were evaluated under the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). The three M-TiO2 NT electrodes showed an improved efficiency over pure TiO2 NTs, while Pt-TiO2 NTs performed even better (without any sacrificial agent) with higher Faradic efficiency than platinum electrode in the photoelectrocatalytic hydrogen production, which could be explained by the uniform and fine metal nanoparticles on the surface of TiO2 NTs to offer abundant active sites for the reaction.

Graphical abstract

In this paper, TiO2 nanotube arrays loaded with nanoparticles of platinum group metals have been explored on their enhancement of photoelectrocatalytic activity. Platinum group metals served as co-catalyst in the surface of TiO2 nanotubes and show great variations in different reactions.

Keywords

TiO2 nanotube arrays Platinum group metal nanoparticles Photoelectrocatalysis Hydrogen production Water splitting 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The project is supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC), the Research Grants Council (RGC) of Hong Kong Joint Research Scheme (No. 5156165015, No. N_HKU718/15), NSFC (21677179), Guangdong Special Fund for Science & Technology Development (Hong Kong Technology Cooperation Funding Scheme) (No. 2016A050503022, GHP/025/16GD&InP/272/16), and Innovation Platform Construction of Guangdong and Hong Kong (No. 2017B050504001).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

11051_2018_4443_MOESM1_ESM.docx (1.5 mb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 1517 kb)

References

  1. Alkaim AF, Kandiel TA, Hussein FH, Dillert R, Bahnemann DW (2013) Solvent-free hydrothermal synthesis of anatase TiO2 nanoparticles with enhanced photocatalytic hydrogen production activity. Appl Catal A Gen 466:32–37.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apcata.2013.06.033 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ayal AK, Zainal Z, Lim HN, Talib ZA, Lim YC, Chang SK, Samsudin NA, Holi AM, Amin WNM (2016) Electrochemical deposition of CdSe-sensitized TiO2 nanotube arrays with enhanced photoelectrochemical performance for solar cell application. J Mater Sci Mater Electron 27:5204–5210.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10854-016-4414-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bai S, Jiang J, Zhang Q, Xiong Y (2015) Steering charge kinetics in photocatalysis: intersection of materials syntheses, characterization techniques and theoretical simulations. Chem Soc Rev 44:2893–2939.  https://doi.org/10.1039/c5cs00064e CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Baker DR, Kamat PV (2009) Photosensitization of TiO2 nanostructures with CdS quantum dots: particulate versus tubular support architectures. Adv Funct Mater 19:805–811.  https://doi.org/10.1002/adfm.200801173 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Borges ME, Sierra M, Cuevas E, García RD, Esparza P (2016) Photocatalysis with solar energy: sunlight-responsive photocatalyst based on TiO2 loaded on a natural material for wastewater treatment. Sol Energy 135:527–535.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.solener.2016.06.022 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chen J, Qiu F, Xu W, Cao S, Zhu H (2015) Recent progress in enhancing photocatalytic efficiency of TiO2-based materials. Appl Catal A Gen 495:131–140.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apcata.2015.02.013 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Chen H, Li P, Umezawa N, Abe H, Ye J, Shiraishi K, Ohta A, Miyazaki S (2016) Bonding and electron energy-level alignment at metal/TiO2 interfaces: a density functional theory study. J Phys Chem C 120:5549–5556.  https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.jpcc.5b12681 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Chen P, Wang F, Chen ZF, Zhang Q, Su Y, Shen L, Yao K, Liu Y, Cai Z, Lv W, Liu G (2017) Study on the photocatalytic mechanism and detoxicity of gemfibrozil by a sunlight-driven TiO2/carbon dots photocatalyst: the significant roles of reactive oxygen species. Appl Catal B Environ 204:250–259.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apcatb.2016.11.040 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Dai G, Yu J, Liu G (2011) Synthesis and enhanced visible-light photoelectrocatalytic activity of p−n junction BiOI/TiO2 nanotube arrays. J Phys Chem C 115:7339–7346.  https://doi.org/10.1021/jp200788n CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Gan J, Lu X, Tong Y (2014) Towards highly efficient photoanodes: boosting sunlight-driven semiconductor nanomaterials for water oxidation. Nanoscale 6:7142–7164.  https://doi.org/10.1039/c4nr01181c CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Grimes CA, Mor GK (2009) TiO2 nanotube arrays: synthesis, properties, and applications.  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4419-0068-5
  12. Hisatomi T, Kubota J, Domen K (2014) Recent advances in semiconductors for photocatalytic and photoelectrochemical water splitting. Chem Soc Rev 43:7520–7535.  https://doi.org/10.1039/c3cs60378d CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Kubacka A, Fernandez-Garcia M, Colon G (2012) Advanced nanoarchitectures for solar photocatalytic applications. Chem Rev 112:1555–1614.  https://doi.org/10.1021/cr100454n CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Kumar SG, Devi LG (2011) Review on modified TiO2 photocatalysis under UV/visible light: selected results and related mechanisms on interfacial charge carrier transfer dynamics. J Phys Chem A 115:13211–13241.  https://doi.org/10.1021/jp204364a CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Kumar MK, Bhavani K, Srinivas B, Kumar SN, Sudhakar M, Naresh G, Venugopal A (2016) Nano structured bismuth and nitrogen co-doped TiO2 as an efficient light harvesting photocatalyst under natural sunlight for the production of H2 by H2O splitting. Appl Catal A Gen 515:91–100.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apcata.2016.01.009 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Landman A, Dotan H, Shter GE, Wullenkord M, Houaijia A, Maljusch A, Grader GS, Rothschild A (2017) Photoelectrochemical water splitting in separate oxygen and hydrogen cells. Nat Mater 16:646–651.  https://doi.org/10.1038/nmat4876 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Li G, Wu L, Li F, Xu P, Zhang D, Li H (2013a) Photoelectrocatalytic degradation of organic pollutants via a CdS quantum dots enhanced TiO2 nanotube array electrode under visible light irradiation. Nanoscale 5:2118–2125.  https://doi.org/10.1039/c3nr34253k CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Li Y, Yu H, Zhang C, Fu L, Li G, Shao Z, Yi B (2013b) Enhancement of photoelectrochemical response by au modified in TiO2 nanorods. Int J Hydrog Energy 38:13023–13030.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhydene.2013.03.122 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Li X, Yu J, Low J, Fang Y, Xiao J, Chen X (2015) Engineering heterogeneous semiconductors for solar water splitting. J Mater Chem A 3:2485–2534.  https://doi.org/10.1039/c4ta04461d CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Liu X, Iocozzia J, Wang Y, Cui X, Chen Y, Zhao S, Li Z, Lin Z (2017) Noble metal–metal oxide nanohybrids with tailored nanostructures for efficient solar energy conversion, photocatalysis and environmental remediation. Energy Environ Sci 10:402–434.  https://doi.org/10.1039/c6ee02265k CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. López-Tenllado FJ, Hidalgo-Carrillo J, Montes V, Marinas A, Urbano FJ, Marinas JM, Ilieva L, Tabakova T, Reid F (2017) A comparative study of hydrogen photocatalytic production from glycerol and propan-2-ol on M/TiO2 systems (M=Au, Pt, Pd). Catal Today 280:58–64.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cattod.2016.05.009 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Mamaghani AH, Haghighat F, Lee C-S (2017) Photocatalytic oxidation technology for indoor environment air purification: the state-of-the-art. Appl Catal B Environ 203:247–269.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apcatb.2016.10.037 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Nguyen NT, Altomare M, Yoo JE, Taccardi N, Schmuki P (2016) Noble metals on anodic TiO2 nanotube mouths: thermal dewetting of minimal Pt co-catalyst loading leads to significantly enhanced photocatalytic H2 generation. Adv Energy Mater 6.  https://doi.org/10.1002/aenm.201501926
  24. Nguyen NT, Hwang I, Kondo T, Yanagishita T, Masuda H, Schmuki P (2017) Optimizing TiO2 nanotube morphology for enhanced photocatalytic H2 evolution using single-walled and highly ordered TiO2 nanotubes decorated with dewetted Au nanoparticles. Electrochem Commun 79:46–50.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.elecom.2017.04.016 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Nishijima Y, Ueno K, Yokota Y, Murakoshi K, Misawa H (2010) Plasmon-assisted photocurrent generation from visible to near-infrared wavelength using a Au-nanorods/TiO2 electrode. J Phys Chem Lett 1:2031–2036.  https://doi.org/10.1021/jz1006675 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Pandey PA, Bell GR, Rourke JP, Sanchez AM, Elkin MD, Hickey BJ, Wilson NR (2011) Physical vapor deposition of metal nanoparticles on chemically modified graphene: observations on metal-graphene interactions. Small 7:3202–3210.  https://doi.org/10.1002/smll.201101430 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Pang YL, Lim S, Ong HC, Chong WT (2014) A critical review on the recent progress of synthesizing techniques and fabrication of TiO2-based nanotubes photocatalysts. Appl Catal A Gen 481:127–142.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apcata.2014.05.007 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Park H, H-i K, Moon G-h, Choi W (2016) Photoinduced charge transfer processes in solar photocatalysis based on modified TiO2. Energy Environ Sci 9:411–433.  https://doi.org/10.1039/c5ee02575c CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Schneider J, Matsuoka M, Takeuchi M, Zhang J, Horiuchi Y, Anpo M, Bahnemann DW (2014) Understanding TiO2 photocatalysis: mechanisms and materials. Chem Rev 114:9919–9986.  https://doi.org/10.1021/cr5001892 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Shoaib A, Ji M, Qian H, Liu J, Xu M, Zhang J (2016) Noble metal nanoclusters and their in situ calcination to nanocrystals: precise control of their size and interface with TiO2 nanosheets and their versatile catalysis applications. Nano Res 9:1763–1774.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12274-016-1069-y CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Siuzdak K, Szkoda M, Sawczak M, Lisowska-Oleksiak A, Karczewski J, Ryl J (2015) Enhanced photoelectrochemical and photocatalytic performance of iodine-doped titania nanotube arrays. RSC Adv 5:50379–50391.  https://doi.org/10.1039/c5ra08407e CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Sun L, Cai J, Wu Q, Huang P, Su Y, Lin C (2013) N-doped TiO2 nanotube array photoelectrode for visible-light-induced photoelectrochemical and photoelectrocatalytic activities. Electrochim Acta 108:525–531.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.electacta.2013.06.149 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Wu B, Liu D, Mubeen S, Chuong TT, Moskovits M, Stucky GD (2016) Anisotropic growth of TiO2 onto gold nanorods for plasmon-enhanced hydrogen production from water reduction. J Am Chem Soc 138:1114–1117.  https://doi.org/10.1021/jacs.5b11341 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Yan T, Zhang H, Liu Y, Guan W, Long J, Li W, You J (2014) Fabrication of robust M/Ag3PO4(M = Pt, Pd, Au) Schottky-type heterostructures for improved visible-light photocatalysis. RSC Adv 4.  https://doi.org/10.1039/c4ra06254j
  35. Yang F, Kang N, Yan J, Wang X, He J, Huo S, Song L (2018) Hydrogen evolution reaction property of molybdenum disulfide/nickel phosphide hybrids in alkaline solution. Metals 8.  https://doi.org/10.3390/met8050359
  36. Ye M, Gong J, Lai Y, Lin C, Lin Z (2012) High-efficiency photoelectrocatalytic hydrogen generation enabled by palladium quantum dots-sensitized TiO2 nanotube arrays. J Am Chem Soc 134:15720–15723.  https://doi.org/10.1021/ja307449z CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Yu J, Wang B (2010) Effect of calcination temperature on morphology and photoelectrochemical properties of anodized titanium dioxide nanotube arrays. Appl Catal B Environ 94:295–302.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apcatb.2009.12.003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Yu Y, Wen W, Qian XY, Liu JB, Wu JM (2017) UV and visible light photocatalytic activity of au/TiO2 nanoforests with anatase/rutile phase junctions and controlled Au locations. Sci Rep 7:41253.  https://doi.org/10.1038/srep41253 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Zhang J, Xu Q, Feng Z, Li M, Li C (2008) Importance of the relationship between surface phases and photocatalytic activity of TiO2. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 47:1766–1769.  https://doi.org/10.1002/anie.200704788 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Zhang H, Chen G, Bahnemann DW (2009) Photoelectrocatalytic materials for environmental applications. J Mater Chem 19:5089.  https://doi.org/10.1039/b821991e CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Zhang M, Lu D, Zhang Z, Yang J (2014) Enhancement of visible-light-induced photocurrent and photocatalytic activity of V and N codoped TiO2 nanotube array films. J Electrochem Soc 161:H416–H421.  https://doi.org/10.1149/2.119406jes CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Zhao Y, Jia X, Waterhouse GIN, Wu L-Z, Tung C-H, O'Hare D, Zhang T (2016) Layered double hydroxide nanostructured photocatalysts for renewable energy production. Adv Energy Mater 6.  https://doi.org/10.1002/aenm.201501974

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Mechanical EngineeringUniversity of Hong KongHong KongChina
  2. 2.School of Environmental Science and EngineeringSun Yat-sen UniversityGuangzhouChina
  3. 3.College of Life and Environmental ScienceShanghai Normal UniversityShanghaiChina

Personalised recommendations