Reduced graphene oxide-based broad band photodetector and temperature sensor: effect of gas adsorption on optoelectrical properties

  • Mustaque A. Khan
  • Kishan L. Kumawat
  • Karuna K. Nanda
  • Saluru B. Krupanidhi
Research Paper


Reduced graphene oxide (rGO) has found tremendous application due to its versatile and tunable properties. We have prepared rGO by the green hydrothermal method without using any toxic additives that comprise ~ 5–14 layers with an average interlayer distance of 3.5 Å. A device with Ag-rGO-Ag configuration has been fabricated that exhibits excellent stable and reproducible photoresponse properties ranging from UV-VIS (ultraviolet-visible) to the near IR (infrared) region. Responsivity and external quantum efficiency (EQE) values are as high as 0.71, 0.733, 0.230, and 0.313 A W−1 and 57, 85, 88, and 120% using 1550, 1064, 632, and 325 nm wavelength, respectively. We have shown that the temperature-dependent resistance follows a well-definite exponential behavior which indicates potential application of rGO as temperature sensor. Overall, these results suggest that rGO can be a potential material for low-cost, environment-friendly, and efficient broadband photodetector and temperature sensor. Also, pressure-dependent optoelectrical measurements have been carried out that reveal adsorption characteristics of various gases.

Graphical abstract


Photodetector Temperature sensor Smart sensor, electrical transport Gas adsorption Nanolayers 



The authors would like to thank MNCF, IISc, for providing us with material characterization tools and the Experimental Condensed Matter Physics Lab, IISc, for assisting us with chopper measurements. Also, we thank Soumyadeep Dutta (CeNSE, IISc) for his help in the preparation of the graphical abstract.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

11051_2018_4393_MOESM1_ESM.docx (9.6 mb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 9.64 mb)


  1. Afzali P, Abdi Y, Arzi E (2014) Gated graphene/titanium dioxide-based photodetector. J Nanopart Res 16:2659CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Altuntas H, Ozgit-Akgun C, Donmez I, Biyikli N (2015) Current transport mechanisms in plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposited AlN thin films. J Appl Phys 117:155101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Arora N, Martins D, Ruggerio D, Tousimis E, Swistel AJ, Osborne MP, Simmons RM (2008) Effectiveness of a noninvasive digital infrared thermal imaging system in the detection of breast cancer. Am J Surg 196:523–526CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Burgard DA, Dalton TR, Bishop GA, Starkey JR, Stedman DH (2006) Nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and ammonia detector for remote sensing of vehicle emissions. Rev Sci Instrum 77:014101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Chang H, Sun Z, Saito M, Yuan Q, Zhang H, Li J, Wang Z, Fujita T, Ding F, Zheng Z, Yan F, Wu H, Chen M, Ikuhara Y (2013) Regulating infrared photoresponses in reduced graphene oxide phototransistors by defect and atomic structure control. ACS Nano 7:6310–6320CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chitara B, Krupanidhi S, Rao C (2011) Solution processed reduced graphene oxide ultraviolet detector. Appl Phys Lett 99:113114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Chowdhury FA, Mochida T, Otsuki J, Alam MS (2014) Thermally reduced solution-processed graphene oxide thin film: an efficient infrared photodetector. Chem Phys Lett 593:198–203CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Degner M, Damaschke N, Ewald H, O'keeffe S, Lewis E (2009) UV LED-based fiber coupled optical sensor for detection of ozone in the ppm and ppb range. Sensors, 2009 IEEE. IEEE, p 95–99Google Scholar
  9. Dias S, Krupanidhi S (2016) Solution processed Cu2SnS3 thin films for visible and infrared photodetector applications. AIP Adv 6:025217CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Dias S, Kumawat K, Biswas S, Krupanidhi SB (2017a) Solvothermal synthesis of Cu2SnS3 quantum dots and their application in near-infrared photodetectors. Inorg Chem 56:2198–2203CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Dias S, Kumawat KL, Biswas S, Krupanidhi S (2017b) Heat-up synthesis of Cu 2 SnS 3 quantum dots for near infrared photodetection. RSC Adv 7:23301–23308CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Feng Q, Li X, Wang J, Gaskov AM (2016) Reduced graphene oxide (rGO) encapsulated Co3O4 composite nanofibers for highly selective ammonia sensors. Sensors Actuators B Chem 222:864–870CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Furchi M, Urich A, Pospischil A, Lilley G, Unterrainer K, Detz H, Klang P, Andrews AM, Schrenk W, Strasser G, Mueller T (2012) Microcavity-integrated graphene photodetector. Nano Lett 12:2773–2777CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Gan X, Shiue R-J, Gao Y, Meric I, Heinz TF, Shepard K, Hone J, Assefa S, Englund D (2013) Chip-integrated ultrafast graphene photodetector with high responsivity. Nat Photonics 7:883–887CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. George PA, Strait J, Dawlaty J, Shivaraman S, Chandrashekhar M, Rana F, Spencer MG (2008) Ultrafast optical-pump terahertz-probe spectroscopy of the carrier relaxation and recombination dynamics in epitaxial graphene. Nano Lett 8:4248–4251CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Gowda P, Sakorikar T, Reddy SK, Ferry DB, Misra A (2014) Defect-induced enhancement and quenching control of photocurrent in few-layer graphene photodetectors. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 6:7485–7490CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Grobe L, Paraskevopoulos A, Hilt J, Schulz D, Lassak F, Hartlieb F, Kottke C, Jungnickel V, Langer K-D (2013) High-speed visible light communication systems. IEEE Commun Mag 51:60–66CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Hummers WS Jr, Offeman RE (1958) Preparation of graphitic oxide. J Am Chem Soc 80:1339–1339CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Ito Y, Zhang W, Li J, Chang H, Liu P, Fujita T, Tan Y, Yan F, Chen M (2016) 3D Bicontinuous nanoporous reduced graphene oxide for highly sensitive photodetectors. Adv Funct Mater 26:1271–1277CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Jung K, Kim Y, Im H, Kim H, Park B (2011) Leakage transport in the high-resistance state of a resistive-switching NbOx thin film prepared by pulsed laser deposition. J Korean Phys Soc 59:2778–2781CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Khan MA, Nanda KK, Krupanidhi SB (2017a) Mechanistic view on efficient photodetection by solvothermally reduced graphene oxide. J Mater Sci Mater Electron 28:14818–14826CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Khan MA, Nanda KK, Krupanidhi SB (2017b) Reduced graphene oxide film based highly responsive infrared detector. Mater Res Exp 4:085603CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Kind H, Yan H, Messer B, Law M, Yang P (2002) Nanowire ultraviolet photodetectors and optical switches. Adv Mater 14:158–160CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Kumar P, Thangaraj R (2008) Analysis of bias field influenced recombination processes in narrow gap Sb2Se3 films. J Phys Condens Matter 20:095213CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Kumar A, Husale S, Srivastava A, Dutta P, Dhar A (2014) Cu–Ni nanoparticle-decorated graphene based photodetector. Nanoscale 6:8192–8198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Kysilka JI, Rubes M, Grajciar LS, Nachtigall P, Bludský O (2011) Accurate description of argon and water adsorption on surfaces of graphene-based carbon allotropes. J Phys Chem A 115:11387–11393CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Li D, Mueller MB, Gilje S, Kaner RB, Wallace GG (2008) Processable aqueous dispersions of graphene nanosheets. Nat Nanotechnol 3:101–105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Liu H, Liu Y, Zhu D (2011a) Chemical doping of graphene. J Mater Chem 21:3335–3345CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Liu Y, Cheng R, Liao L, Zhou H, Bai J, Liu G, Liu L, Huang Y, Duan X (2011b) Plasmon resonance enhanced multicolour photodetection by graphene. Nat Commun 2:579CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Mallampati B, Nair S, Ruda H, Philipose U (2015) Role of surface in high photoconductive gain measured in ZnO nanowire-based photodetector. J Nanopart Res 17:176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Muchharla B, Narayanan T, Balakrishnan K, Ajayan PM, Talapatra S (2014) Temperature dependent electrical transport of disordered reduced graphene oxide. 2D Mater 1:011008CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Mukhokosi EP, Krupanidhi SB, Nanda KK (2018) An extrinsic approach toward achieving fast response and self-powered photodetector. Phys Status Solidi (a)Google Scholar
  33. Nair R, Blake P, Grigorenko A, Novoselov K, Booth T, Stauber T, Peres N, Geim A (2008) Fine structure constant defines visual transparency of graphene. Science 320:1308–1308CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Papamatthaiou S, Argyropoulos D-P, Masurkar A, Cavallari M, Farmakis F, Kymissis I, Georgoulas N (2017) Permanent water swelling effect in low temperature thermally reduced graphene oxide. Appl Phys Lett 110:252106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Parikshit S, Sampath Kumar P, Vadali VSSS, Sushmee B (2016) Graphene-based wearable temperature sensor and infrared photodetector on a flexible polyimide substrate. Flex Print Electron 1:025006CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Price GL (1974) Potential energies of adsorbed rare gases on graphite. Surf Sci 46:697–702CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Rani B, Jindal V, Dharamvir K. Interaction of nitrogen molecule with graphene. AIP Conference Proceedings. AIP; 2013. p. 300–301.Google Scholar
  38. Rani B, Jindal V, Dharamvir K. Adsorption configurations of two nitrogen atoms on graphene. AIP Conference Proceedings. AIP; 2014, p. 450–452.Google Scholar
  39. Rybolt TR, Pierotti RA (1979) Rare gas–graphite interaction potentials. J Chem Phys 70:4413–4419CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Senapati S, Nanda KK (2017) Ultrahigh-sensitive optical temperature sensing based on quasi-thermalized green emissions from Er: ZnO. Phys Chem Chem Phys 19:2346–2352CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Tsutsumi K, Yamashita A, Ohji H (2002) The experimental study of high TCR Pt thin films for thermal sensors. Sensors. Proceedings of IEEE, 2002. IEEE, pp. 1002–1005Google Scholar
  42. Von Arx M, Paul O, Baltes H (1997) Test structures to measure the Seebeck coefficient of CMOS IC polysilicon. IEEE Trans Semicond Manuf 10:201–208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Xia F, Mueller T, Lin Y-M, Valdes-Garcia A, Avouris P (2009) Ultrafast graphene photodetector. Nat Nanotechnol 4:839–843CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Yan H, Xu B, Shi S, Ouyang C (2012) First-principles study of the oxygen adsorption and dissociation on graphene and nitrogen doped graphene for Li-air batteries. J Appl Phys 112:104316CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Zhang BY, Liu T, Meng B, Li X, Liang G, Hu X, Wang QJ (2013) Broadband high photoresponse from pure monolayer graphene photodetector. Nat Commun 4:1811CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Zhang Q, Jie J, Diao S, Shao Z, Zhang Q, Wang L, Deng W, Hu W, Xia H, Yuan X (2015) Solution-processed graphene quantum dot deep-UV photodetectors. ACS Nano 9:1561–1570CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Zhechkov L, Heine T, Seifert G (2006) Physisorption of N2 on graphene platelets: an ab initio study. Int J Quantum Chem 106:1375–1382CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2018
corrected publication November/2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mustaque A. Khan
    • 1
  • Kishan L. Kumawat
    • 1
  • Karuna K. Nanda
    • 1
  • Saluru B. Krupanidhi
    • 1
  1. 1.Materials Research CentreIndian Institute of ScienceBengaluruIndia

Personalised recommendations