Time-dependent non-linear size change of C60-ethylenediamine adduct particles in formation process

  • Tsuyoshi Akiyama
  • Yuji Ono
  • Hiroshi Miyamura
  • Jo Saito
  • Kento Kimura
  • Suguru Higashida
  • Takeo Oku
Brief Communication


Addition reaction between C60 and ethylenediamine occurred at room temperature in an ambient condition. C60-ethylenediamine adduct particles were prepared by mixing toluene solutions of C60 and ethyelenediamine. Average diameter of the C60-ethylenediamine adduct particles was changed non-linearly according to the reaction time, which were observed using transmission electron microscopy. Early stage of the reaction, the diameter of the adduct particles was changed from about 250 to about 430 nm. Then, the size of the adduct particles was converged to about 300 nm. During this addition reaction, the crystalline sizes of adduct particles were constant about 2–3 nm, regardless of the sizes of the adduct particles, which were determined by X-ray diffraction measurement.

Graphical abstract


Fullerene Amination Fullerne-diamine adduct particle Aggregation Dissociation Nanoparticle assemblies 



The authors thank Dr. Shin-ichiro Kato for his frank and valuable comments for this research.

Funding information

This work was partly supported by JSPS KAKENHI Grant Numbers JP22550123 and JP16K0574.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Materials Science, School of EngineeringThe University of Shiga PrefectureHikoneJapan
  2. 2.Division of Materials Science, Graduate School of EngineeringThe University of Shiga PrefectureHikoneJapan
  3. 3.Environmental and Materials Chemistry Course Department of Technological SystemsOsaka Prefecture University College of TechnologyNeyagawaJapan

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