Bioselective synthesis of gold nanoparticles from diluted mixed Au, Ir, and Rh ion solution by Anabaena cylindrica
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Over the last years, an environmentally friendly and economically efficient way of nanoparticle production has been found in the biosynthesis of metal nanoparticles by bacteria and cyanobacteria. In this study, Anabaena cylindrica, a non-toxic cyanobacterium, is deployed in a diluted ionic aqueous mixture of equal concentrations of gold, iridium, and rhodium, of 0.1 mM each, for the selective biosynthesis of metal nanoparticles (NPs). To analyze the cyanobacterial metal uptake, X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) were applied. Only gold can be found in crystalline and nanoparticle form inside the cells of A. cylindrica, and it is the only metal for which ICP-MS analyses show a rapid decrease of the concentration in the culture medium. A slight decrease of rhodium and none of iridium was observed in the evaluated timeline of 51 h. The average diameter size of the emerging gold nanoparticles increased over the first few days, but is found to be below 10 nm even after more than 2 days. A new evaluation method was used to determine the spatially resolved distribution of the nanoparticles inside the cyanobacterial cells. This new method was also used to analyze TEM images from earlier studies of A. cylindrica and Anabaena sp., both incubated with an overall concentration of 0.8 mM Au3+ to compare the metal uptake. A. cylindrica was found to be highly selective towards the formation of gold nanoparticles in the presence of rhodium and iridium.
KeywordsCyanobacteria Gold nanoparticles Biosynthesis Bioselective recycling
We thank Werner Manz, Jutta Meier, Alexandra Grün (Microbiology, Campus Koblenz, University Koblenz-Landau), Manoj Schulz, Rita Beel, Michael P. Schlüsener, Lars Düster, and Thomas A. Ternes (Federal Institute of Hydrology, BfG, Koblenz) for analytical support and helpful discussions; Philipp Schuster (Software Languages Team, Campus Koblenz, University Koblenz-Landau) for realizing the image processing tool in HASKELL; Rita Grotjahn (Cell Biology/Electron Microscopy, University Bayreuth) for technical assistance as well as Jan Guretzke for testing the image processing tool.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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