Improved photocatalytic degradation of Orange G using hybrid nanofibers
Functionalised electrospun polyamide-6 (PA-6) nanofibres incorporating gadolinium oxide nanoparticles conjugated to zinc tetracarboxyphenoxy phthalocyanine (ZnTCPPc) as the sensitizer were prepared for the photocatalytic degradation of Orange G. Fibres incorporating the phthalocyanine alone or a mixture of the nanoparticles and phthalocyanine were also generated. The singlet oxygen-generating ability of the sensitizer was shown to be maintained within the fibre mat, with the singlet oxygen quantum yields increasing upon incorporation of the magnetic nanoparticles. Consequently, the rate of the photodegradation of Orange G was observed to increase with an increase in singlet oxygen quantum yield. A reduction in the half-lives for the functionalised nanofibres was recorded in the presence of the magnetic nanoparticles, indicating an improvement in the efficiency of the degradation process.
KeywordsZinc tetracarboxyphenoxy phthalocyanine Gadolinium oxide nanoparticles Electrospinning Orange G Nanocomposites
This study was funded by National Research Foundation Incentive and CPRR grants, South Africa (Grant number 93474), University of the Western Cape, Rhodes University (EA) and by the Department of Science and Technology (DST) South Africa through a DST/NRF South African Research Chairs Initiative for the Professor of Medicinal Chemistry and Nanotechnology (TN).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- Aplin R, Wait TD (2000) Comparison of three advanced oxidation. Processes for Degradation of Textile Dyes Water Sci Technol 42:345–354Google Scholar
- Foote CS (1979) In: Wasserman HH, Murray RW (eds) Quenching of singlet oxygen. Academic Press, New York, San Francisco, London, pp 139–171Google Scholar
- Goethals A, Mugadza T, Arslanoglu Y, Zugle R, Antunes E, Van Hulle SWH, Nyokong T, De Clerck K (2014) Polyamide nanofiber membranes functionalized with zinc phthalocyanines. J Appl Polym Sci 2014:40486 (7 pages)Google Scholar
- Idowu M, Nyokong T (2012) Photophysical behavior of fluorescent nanocomposites of phthalocyanine linked to quantum dots and magnetic nanoparticles. Int J Nanosci 11(2012). Article number 1250018Google Scholar
- Kadish K, Smith KM, Guilard R (eds) (2003) Porphyrins handbook: applications of phthalocyanines, vol 19. Academic Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- Lang K, Mosinger J, Kubat P (2016) Nanofibers and nanocomposite films for singlet oxygen based applications. In: Nonell S, Flors C (eds) Singlet oxygen: applications in biosciences and nanosciences, vol 1. Royal Society of Chemistry, Thomas Graham House, Cambridge, pp 305–322. ISBN 978-1-78262-038-9Google Scholar
- Nyokong T (2006) In: Zagal JH, Bedioui F, Dodelet JP (eds) N4-macrocyclic metal complexes: electrocatalysis, electrophotochemistry, and biomimetric electro-catalysis. Springer, Berlin Chapter 7Google Scholar
- Rosenthal I, Ben Hur E (1996) In: Leznoff CC, Lever ABP (eds) Phthalocyanines: properties and applications, vol 1–4. Wiley VCH, New YorkGoogle Scholar