A toxicity assessment of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles on development and behaviour of Drosophila melanogaster

  • S. Aurosman Pappus
  • Basanti Ekka
  • Swetapadma Sahu
  • Debabrat Sabat
  • Priyabrat Dash
  • Monalisa Mishra
Research Paper


The effects of oral intake of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (HApNPs) were investigated on growth, development and behaviour of Drosophila. The Drosophila responses to various concentrations of HApNPs were compared. At lower concentrations, i.e. 5 mg L−1 more amount of oxidative stress was produced than that of highest concentration, i.e. 80 mg L−1. The increased amounts of oxidative stress reflect a higher amount of ROS production and increased cell damage within the larval gut. HApNPs was further shown to interfere with the calcium and phosphorus absorption pathway. Besides all these damage, HApNPs causes developmental delay in the late third instar larvae. The most significant anomaly was observed in pupae count, fly hatching after the feeding of HApNPs. Flies hatched from treated vials have decreased body weight with defective walking behaviour. Hatched flies have a phenotypic defect in the wing, eye and thorax of the bristles. Along with these changes, the adult fly becomes more prone towards stress. The findings hint that HApNPs persuade noxious effects and alter the development, structure, function and behaviour of the fly in a concentration-dependent manner.

Graphical abstract

Effect of Hydroxyapatite on the complete life cycle of Drosophila. Flies lay eggs in Hydroxyapatite containing food. As soon as the eggs hatch to larvae they start eating the NP contained food. The effect of Hydroxyapatite on various developmental stage is summerised by biochemical, immunohistochemical, behavioral, developmental and phenotypic defects.


Hydroxyapatite nanoparticles Mechano-sensory neurons Drosophila melanogaster Oxidative stress Micronuclei Phosphorus absorption Environmental and health effects 

Supplementary material

11051_2017_3824_Fig9_ESM.jpg (40 kb)

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. Aurosman Pappus
    • 1
  • Basanti Ekka
    • 2
  • Swetapadma Sahu
    • 3
  • Debabrat Sabat
    • 3
  • Priyabrat Dash
    • 2
  • Monalisa Mishra
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Biological SciencesIISER KolkataNadiaIndia
  2. 2.Department of ChemistryNational Institute of TechnologyRourkelaIndia
  3. 3.Department of Life ScienceNational Institute of TechnologyRourkelaIndia

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