Evaluation of the physicochemical properties of liposomes as potential carriers of anticancer drugs: spectroscopic study

  • Danuta PentakEmail author
Research Paper


Vesicle size and composition are a critical parameter for determining the circulation half-life of liposomes. Size influences the degree of drug encapsulation in liposomes. The geometry, size, and properties of liposomes in an aqueous environment have to be described to enable potential applications of liposome systems as drug carriers. The characteristics of multiple thermotropic phase transitions are also an important consideration in liposomes used for analytical and bioanalytical purposes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the physicochemical properties of liposomes which accommodate hydrophilic and amphiphilic drugs used in cancer therapy. The studied liposomes were prepared with the involvement of the modified reverse-phase evaporation method (mREV). The prepared liposomes had a diameter of 70–150 nm. The analyzed compounds were 1-β-d-arabinofuranosylcytosine, cyclophosphamide, and ifosfamide. In literature, there is no information about simultaneous incorporation of cytarabine, ifosfamide, and cyclophosphamide, in spite of the fact that these drugs have been used for more than 30 years. A combination of the examined drugs is used in CODOX-M/IVAC therapy. CODOX-M/IVAC (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, high-dose methotrexate/ifosfamide, etoposide, and high-dose cytarabine) is one of the currently preferred intensive-dose chemotherapy regimens for Burkitt lymphoma (BL). The present research demonstrates the pioneering studies of incorporation of ifosfamide into liposome vesicles, location of and competition between the analyzed drugs and liposome vesicles. The applied methods were nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), atomic force microscopy (AFM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC).

Graphical Abstract


Nanomedicine Drug delivery Liposome mREV NMR AFM DSC 



This study was supported by the State Committee for Scientific Research in Poland (N N204 139039).

Supplementary material

11051_2016_3427_MOESM1_ESM.doc (66 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOC 66 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Materials Chemistry and Chemical Technology, Institute of ChemistryUniversity of SilesiaKatowicePoland

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