Potential of two-line atomic fluorescence for temperature imaging in turbulent indium-oxide-producing flames
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The applicability of two-line atomic fluorescence (TLAF) for temperature imaging in an indium-based flame spray pyrolysis (FSP) process is demonstrated using a single tunable optical parametric oscillator (OPO) to generate the required excitation wavelengths consecutively. Single-shot images of the detected fluorescence signals demonstrate that the signal levels in the flame are suitable for evaluation of temperature and verify the capability and potential of the measurement technique directly during particle formation without additional indium seeding. Qualitative averaged two-dimensional temperature distributions in the FSP flame are presented, showing the influence of varying sheath gas flow rates on the resulting temperature distribution. With the addition of a second OPO and detection system, the two fluorescence signals acquired consecutively in this work could be obtained simultaneously and enable spatio-temporally resolved single-shot temperature measurements in flame synthesis processes of indium-containing nanoparticles.
KeywordsFlame spray pyrolysis Indium(III)-oxide nanoparticles Two-line atomic fluorescence Temperature measurement
The authors would like to acknowledge the funding of the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) through the Cluster of Excellence Engineering of Advanced Materials (EAM) and the Erlangen Graduate School in Advanced Optical Technologies (SAOT) at the University of Erlangen-Nürnberg. Furthermore, we would like to thank Michael Altenhoff for his support concerning the burner setup, Chloe Dedic for her support concerning the optical setup, the Institute of Particle Technology (LFG) for providing the precursor, Toptica Photonics AG for the loan of a laser spectrum analyser, Dr. Karsten Wegener of ETH Zurich for the provision of the FSP burner, and Dr. Antonio Tricoli of the Australian National University for valuable discussions concerning the effects of air entrainment.
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