Size-dependent filtration of nanoparticles on porous films composed by polystyrene microsphere monolayers and applications in site-selective deposition of nanoparticles

  • Weidong Ruan
  • Tieli Zhou
  • Chengbin Sun
  • Yanchun Tao
  • Fei Lu
  • Xu Wang
  • Bing ZhaoEmail author
  • Yinqiu CuiEmail author
Research Paper


Composite films composed of polystyrene (PS) microsphere monolayers and gold (Au) and/or silver (Ag) nanoparticles (NPs) decorations were prepared by a novel size-dependent filtration effect on close-packed PS microsphere arrays. The uniform pores inlaid in the PS monolayer films acted as the transport tunnels for NPs. The steric restriction induced by the size of the pores was used as a main strategy to fabricate hybrid micro/nano films, which were composed of PS microspheres with inhomogeneous anisotropic decorations. The Au and Ag NPs were used as the building blocks to decorate the PS microspheres through a layer-by-layer self-assembly technique with the aid of polyelectrolyte coupling agents. Only the small particles which could pass through the micropores could reach to and deposit on the inner surfaces of the PS microsphere monolayer films. Large particles remained on the outside and could only deposit on the outer surfaces. Thus, the inhomogeneous anisotropic decoration was obtained. This study provides a novel strategy for fabricating anisotropic micro/nanostructures by the size-dependent filtration effect of NPs on porous films and has the potential in applications of anisotropic self-assembly, sensor, and surface modifications at nanoscale.

Graphical Abstract


Polystyrene microsphere Porous Size-dependent Nanoparticle Nanofabrication 



The authors greatly acknowledge the financial support from the Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 21103062, 21273091, 21221063, 21327803, 41472024, and 21411140235), the 111 project (B06009), the Specialized Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (Grant Nos. 20100061120087 and 20110061110017), and the Development Program of the Science and Technology of Jilin Province (20130508). W. D. R. is also grateful to the Postdoctoral Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 2014M561286), Special Funds of State Key Laboratories, Seeding Money Project of Jilin University, and R & D start-up funds of Jilin University.

Supplementary material

11051_2015_3193_MOESM1_ESM.docx (399 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 399 kb)


  1. An J et al (2008) Sculpturing effect of chloride ions in shape transformation from triangular to discal silver nanoplates. J Phys Chem C 112:15176–15182. doi: 10.1021/jp802694p CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Boeker A, He J, Emrick T, Russell TP (2007) Self-assembly of nanoparticles at interfaces. Soft Matter 3:1231–1248. doi: 10.1039/b706609k CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Caruso F, Caruso RA, Möhwald H (1998) Nanoengineering of inorganic and hybrid hollow spheres by colloidal templating. Science 282:1111–1114. doi: 10.1126/science.282.5391.1111 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Kaewsaneha C, Tangboriboonrat P, Polpanich D, Eissa M, Elaissari A (2013) Janus colloidal particles: preparation, properties, and biomedical applications. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 5:1857–1869. doi: 10.1021/am302528g CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Li F, Josephson DP, Stein A (2011) Colloidal assembly: the road from particles to colloidal molecules and crystals. Angew Chem Int Ed 50:360–388. doi: 10.1002/anie.201001451 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Lu Y, Xiong H, Jiang X, Xia Y, Prentiss M, Whitesides GM (2003) Asymmetric dimers can be formed by dewetting half-shells of gold deposited on the surfaces of spherical oxide colloids. J Am Chem Soc 125:12724–12725. doi: 10.1021/ja0373014 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Ning Y, Wang CY, Ngai T, Tong Z (2013) Fabrication of tunable Janus microspheres with dual anisotropy of porosity and magnetism. Langmuir 29:5138–5144. doi: 10.1021/la400053g CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Ruan WD, Lu ZC, Ji N, Wang CX, Zhao B, Zhang JH (2007) Facile fabrication of large area polystyrene colloidal crystal monolayer via surfactant-free Langmuir-Blodgett technique. Chem Res Chin Univ 23:712–714CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Ruan WD, Lu ZC, Zhou TL, Zhao B, Niu L (2010) Surface micropatterning technique for surface-enhanced Raman scattering analysis. Anal Methods 2:684–687CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Shen SS et al (2014) CdTe quantum dots modified polystyrene spheres with Ag nanoparticle caps: applications both in fluorescence and in SERS. Colloids Surf A 443:467–472. doi: 10.1016/j.colsurfa.2013.12.010 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Walther A, Mueller AHE (2013) Janus particles: synthesis self-assembly, physical properties, and applications. Chem Rev 113:5194–5261. doi: 10.1021/cr300089t CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Wang HY et al (2014) Fabrication of Au hybrid protein chips and its application to SERS-based bioassay. Vib Spectrosc 70:49–52. doi: 10.1016/j.vibspec.2013.11.001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Yang SK, Xu JJ, Wang ZY, Zeng HB, Lei Y (2011) Janus particle arrays with multiple structural controlling abilities synthesized by seed-directed deposition. J Mater Chem 21:11930–11935. doi: 10.1039/C1JM10197H CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Yu Q, Huang HW, Chen R, Yang HS, Peng XS, Ye ZZ (2011) Filtration-assembling colloidal crystal templates for ordered macroporous nanoparticle films. J Mater Chem 21:18089–18094. doi: 10.1039/c1jm13231h CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Zhang G, Wang DY (2009) Colloidal lithography-the art of nanochemical patterning. Chem-Asian J 4:236–245. doi: 10.1002/asia.200800298 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Zhang J, Ling LT, Wang CF, Chen S, Chen L, Son DY (2014a) Versatile dendrimer-derived nanocrystal microreactors towards fluorescence colloidal photonic crystals. J Mater Chem C 2:3610–3616. doi: 10.1039/c3tc32533d CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Zhang MJ, Li XQ, Kang SZ, Qin LX, Li GD, Mu J (2014b) Facile assembly of a polystyrene microsphere/graphene oxide/porphyrin composite with coreshell structure. RSC Adv 4:37854–37858. doi: 10.1039/c4ra06579d CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Zhang XL, Niu CY, Wang YQ, Zhou SM, Liu J (2014c) Gel-limited synthesis of dumbbell-like Fe3O4–Ag composite microspheres and their SERS applications. Nanoscale 6:12618–12625. doi: 10.1039/c4nr03301a CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.State Key Laboratory of Supramolecular Structure and MaterialsJilin UniversityChangchunPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.College of Food Engineering and Landscape ArchitectureChangchun UniversityChangchunPeople’s Republic of China
  3. 3.School of Life SciencesJilin UniversityChangchunPeople’s Republic of China
  4. 4.School of Chemistry and Pharmaceutical EngineeringJilin Institute of Chemical TechnologyJilinPeople’s Republic of China

Personalised recommendations