Plasma synthesis of titanium nitride, carbide and carbonitride nanoparticles by means of reactive anodic arc evaporation from solid titanium
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Plasma methods using the direct evaporation of a transition metal are well suited for the cost-efficient production of ceramic nanoparticles. In this paper, we report on the development of a simple setup for the production of titanium-ceramics by reactive anodic arc evaporation and the characterization of the aerosol as well as the nanopowder. It is the first report on TiC X N1 − X synthesis in a simple anodic arc plasma. By means of extensive variations of the gas composition, it is shown that the composition of the particles can be tuned from titanium nitride over a titanium carbonitride phase (TiC X N1 − X ) to titanium carbide as proven by XRD data. The composition of the plasma gas especially a very low concentration of hydrocarbons around 0.2 % of the total plasma gas is crucial to tune the composition and to avoid the formation of free carbon. Examination of the particles by HR-TEM shows that the material consists mostly of cubic single crystalline particles with mean sizes between 8 and 27 nm.
KeywordsAnodic arc Plasma synthesis Ceramic nanopowder Aerosol synthesis TiC titaniumcarbide TiN titaniumnitride TiCN titaniumcarbonitride
This work was financially supported by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) in the framework of the Collaborative Research Centre on “Nanoparticles from the gas phase: formation, structure and properties” (SFB 445).
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