Measurement of the dynamic behavior of thin poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) hydrogels and their phase transition temperatures measured using reflectometric interference spectroscopy

  • Fuminori Okada
  • Yoshikatsu Akiyama
  • Jun Kobayashi
  • Hidetaka Ninomiya
  • Hideko Kanazawa
  • Masayuki Yamato
  • Teruo Okano
Research Paper
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Engineered Bioinspired Nanomaterials

Abstract

Temperature-responsive cell culture surfaces prepared by modifying tissue-culture polystyrene with nanoscale poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PIPAAm) hydrogels are widely used as intelligent surfaces for the fabrication of various cell sheets that change with temperature. In this work, the characteristics of nanoscale PIPAAm hydrogels were phenomenologically elucidated on the basis of time-dependent surface evaluations under conditions of changing temperature. Because the dynamic characteristics of the nanoscale hydrogel did not exhibit good performance, the nanoscale PIPAAm hydrogel was analyzed by monitoring its temperature-dependent dynamic swelling/deswelling changes using reflectometric interference spectroscopy (RIfS) on an instrument equipped with a microfluidic system. RIfS measurements under ambient atmosphere provided the precise physical thickness of the dry PIPAAm hydrogel (6.7 nm), which agreed with the atomic force microscopy results (6.6 nm). Simulations of the reflectance spectra revealed that changes in the wavelength of the minimum reflectance (Δλ) were attributable to the changes in the refractive index of the thin PIPAAm hydrogel induced by a temperature-dependent volume phase transition. The temperature-dependent Δλ change was used to monitor the swelling/deswelling behavior of the nanoscale PIPAAm hydrogel. In addition, the phase transition temperature of the thin PIPAAm hydrogel under aqueous conditions was also determined to be the inflection point of the plot of the change in Δλ as a function of temperature. The dynamic behavior of a thin PIPAAm hydrogel chemically deposited on a surface was readily analyzed using a new analytical system with RIfS and microfluidic devices.

Keywords

Temperature-responsive polymer Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) Thin hydrogel Reflectometric interference spectroscopy Phase transition temperature Electron beam irradiation Bioinspired nanomaterial 

Supplementary material

11051_2015_2951_MOESM1_ESM.doc (1.1 mb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOC 1078 kb)

References

  1. Akiyama Y, Kikuchi A, Yamato M, Okano T (2004) Ultrathin poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) grafted layer on polystyrene surfaces for cell adhesion/detachment control. Langmuir 20(13):5506–5511CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Akiyama Y, Kushida A, Yamato M, Kikuchi A, Okano T (2007) Surface characterization of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) grafted tissue culture polystyrene by electron beam irradiation, using atomic force microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. J Nanosci Nanotechnol 7(3):796–802CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Akizuki T, Oda S, Komaki M, Tsuchioka H, Kawakatsu N, Kikuchi A, Yamato M, Okano T, Ishikawa I (2005) Application of periodontal ligament cell sheet for periodontal regeneration: a pilot study in beagle dogs. J Periodontal Res 40(3):245–251CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bae YH, Okano T, Kim SW (1990) Temperature dependence of swelling of crosslinked poly(N,N-alkyl substituted acrylamides) in water. J Polym Sci Part B 28(6):923–936CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Balamurugan S, Mendez S, Balamurugan SS, O’Brien MJ, Lopez GP (2003) Thermal response of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) brushes probed by surface plasmon resonance. Langmuir 19(7):2545–2549CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bohanon T, Elender G, Knoll W, Koberle P, Lee JS, Offenhausser A, Ringsdorf H, Sackmann E, Simon J, Tovar G et al (1996) Neural cell pattern formation on glass and oxidized silicon surfaces modified with poly(N-isopropylacrylamide). J Biomater Sci Polym Ed 8(1):19–39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Born M, Wolf E (2002) Principles of optics: electromagnetics theory of propagation, interface and diffraction of light. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  8. Fujiwara H (2007) Spectroscopic ellipsometry: principles and applications, Wiley, NY, 170 and 349–352Google Scholar
  9. Fukumori K, Akiyama Y, Yamato M, Kobayashi J, Sakai K, Okano T (2009) Temperature-responsive glass coverslips with an ultrathin poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) layer. Acta Biomater 5(1):470–476CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Fukumori K, Akiyama Y, Kumashiro Y, Kobayashi J, Yamato M, Sakai K, Okano T (2010) Characterization of ultra-thin temperature-responsive polymer layer and its polymer thickness dependency on cell attachment/detachment properties. Macromol Biosci 10(10):1117–1129CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Hirokawa Y, Tanaka T (1984) Volume phase transition in a nonionic gel. J Chem Phys 81(12):6379–6380CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Ishida N, Biggs S (2007) Direct observation of the phase transition for a poly(n-isopropylacryamide) layer grafted onto a solid surface by AFM and QCM-D. Langmuir 23:11083–11088CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Ishida N, Biggs S (2010) Effect of grafting density on phase transition behavior for poly(n-isopropylacryamide) brushes in aqueous solutions studied by AFM and QCM-D. Macromolecules 43:7269–7276CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Kurihara Y, Takama M, Sekiya T, Yoshihara Y, Ooya T, Takeuchi T (2012) Fabrication of carboxylated silicon nitride sensor chips for detection of antigen-antibody reaction using microfluidic reflectometric interference spectroscopy. Langmuir 28(38):13609–13615CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Macleod HA (2010) Thin-film optical filters, 4th edn. CRC Press, London, pp 13–71Google Scholar
  16. Naini CA, Franzka S, Frost S, Ulbricht M, Hartmann N (2011) Probing the intrinsic switching kinetics of ultrathin thermoresponsive polymer brushes. Angew Chem Int Ed 50:4513–4516CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Nishida K, Yamato M, Hayashida Y, Watanabe K, Yamamoto K, Adachi E, Nagai S, Kikuchi A, Maeda N, Watanabe H et al (2004) Corneal reconstruction with tissue-engineered cell sheets composed of autologous oral mucosal epithelium. N Engl J Med 351(12):1187–1196CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Okano T, Yamada N, Sakai H, Sakurai Y (1993) A novel recovery system for cultured cells using plasma-treated polystyrene dishes grafted with poly(N-isopropylacrylamide). J Biomed Mater Res 27(10):1243–1251CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Rahane SB, Floyd JA, Metters AT, Kilbey SM (2008) Swelling behavior of multiresponsive poly(methacrylic acid)-block–poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) brushes synthesized using surface-initiated photoiniferter-mediated photopolymerization. Adv Funct Mater 18:1232–1240CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Shimizu T, Yamato M, Kikuchi A, Okano T (2003) Cell sheet engineering for myocardial tissue reconstruction. Biomaterials 24(13):2309–2316CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Stefan EK, Sui X, Hempenius MA, Zandvliet HJW, Vancso GJ (2012) Probing the thermal collapse of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) grafts by quantitative in situ ellipsometry. J Phys Chem B 116(30):9261–9268CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Yakushiji T, Sakai K, Kikuchi A, Aoyagi T, Sakurai Y, Okano T (1999) Effects of cross-linked structure on temperature-responsive hydrophobic interaction of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) hydrogel-modified surfaces with steroids. Anal Chem 71(6):1125–1130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Yamada N, Okano T, Sakai H, Karikusa F, Sawasaki Y, Sakurai Y (1990) Thermo-responsive polymeric surfaces; control of attachment and detachment of cultured cells. Macromol Rapid Commun 11(11):571–576CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Fuminori Okada
    • 1
    • 2
  • Yoshikatsu Akiyama
    • 2
  • Jun Kobayashi
    • 2
  • Hidetaka Ninomiya
    • 1
  • Hideko Kanazawa
    • 3
  • Masayuki Yamato
    • 2
  • Teruo Okano
    • 2
  1. 1.Konica Minolta, INC.Hino-shiJapan
  2. 2.Institute of Advanced Biomedical Engineering and ScienceTokyo Women’s Medical University (TWIns)Shinjuku-kuJapan
  3. 3.Faculty of PharmacyKeio UniversityMinato-kuJapan

Personalised recommendations