NMR-based metabonomic analysis of MnO-embedded iron oxide nanoparticles as potential dual-modal contrast agents
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MnO-embedded iron oxide nanoparticles (MnIO-NPs) can be treated as potential dual-modal contrast agents. However, their overall bio-effects and potential toxicity remain unknown. In this study, the metabolic effects of MnIO-NPs (dosed at 1 and 5 mg Fe/kg) on Sprague–Dawley rats were investigated using metabonomic analysis, histopathological examination, and conventional biochemical analysis. The histological changes included a focal inflammation in the liver at high-dose and a slightly enlarged area of splenic white pulp after 48 h post-dose. Blood biochemical analysis showed that albumin, globulins, aspartate aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, blood urea nitrogen, and glucose changed distinctly compared to the control. The metabonomic analysis of body fluids (serum and urine) and tissues (liver, kidney, and spleen) indicated that MnIO-NPs induced metabolic perturbation in rats including energy, nucleotides, amino acids and phospholipid metabolisms. Besides, the variations of supportive nutrients: valine, leucine, isoleucine, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (phosphate), and nicotinamide, and the conjugation substrates: glycine, taurine, glutamine, glutathione, and methyl donors (formate, sarcosine, dimethylglycine, choline, and betaine) were involved in detoxification reaction of MnIO-NPs. The obtained information would provide identifiable ground for the candidate selection and optimization.
KeywordsMagnetic nanoparticles Biological effect Dual-modal contrast agent NMR Metabonomics
We acknowledge the financial supports from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (81272581, 11174239, 81000662, and 21222106) and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (2011121046) and NCET.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare no competing financial interest.
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