Time-dependent growth of crystalline Au0-nanoparticles in cyanobacteria as self-reproducing bioreactors: 1. Anabaena sp.
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Customized metal nanoparticles are highly relevant in industrial processes, where they are used as catalysts and therefore needed on a large scale. An extremely economically and environmentally friendly way to produce metal nanoparticles is microbial biosynthesis, meaning the biosorption and bioreduction of diluted metal ions to zero valent (metal) nanoparticles. To maintain the key advantage of biosynthesis, including eco friendliness, a bioreactor (e.g., bacteria) has to be harmless by itself. Here, the ability of the cyanobacteria Anabaena sp. (SAG 12.82) is shown to fulfill both needs: bioreduction of Au3+ ions to Au0 and the subsequent formation of crystalline Au0-nanoparticles as well as absence of the release of toxic substances (e.g., anatoxin-a). The time-dependent growth of the nanoparticles is recorded by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) over a range of several days. Formation of nanoparticles starts within the first minutes at the heterocyst polysaccharide layer (HEP). After 4 h, the dominating amount of nanoparticles is found in the vegetative cells. The bioproduced nanoparticles are found in both cell types, mainly located along the thylakoid membranes of the vegetative cells and have a final average size of 9 nm within the examined timescale of a few days.
KeywordsCyanobacteria Gold nanoparticles Biosynthesis X-ray diffraction (XRD) Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) Nanobiotechnology
We thank Werner Manz, Jutta Meier, Alexandra Grün (Microbiology, Campus Koblenz, University Koblenz-Landau), Manoj Schulz, Rita Beel, Michael P. Schlüsener, Thomas A. Ternes (Federal Institute of Hydrology, BfG, Koblenz) for analytical support (especially anatoxin-a measurements) and helpful discussions as well as Rita Grotjahn (Cell Biology/Electron Microscopy, University Bayreuth) for technical assistance.
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