Synthesis of mesoporous SiO2–ZnO nanocapsules: encapsulation of small biomolecules for drugs and “SiOZO-plex” for gene delivery
- 587 Downloads
This work presents a new synthesis of mesoporous SiO2–ZnO composite nanocapsules with sizes of 90–150 nm and represents their applications in encapsulation of small biomolecules (fluorescent molecules, drugs, and DNA) for uses in medical biotechnology (e.g., drug and gene delivery) for the first time. The nanocapsule size and morphology have been confirmed through the HRSEM and HRTEM. The mesoporous structure of the novel materials has been confirmed through both BET and HRTEM, and the pore diameter observed to be ca. 2–8 nm with an average diameter of 5.1 nm. The BET surface area of mesoporous SiO2–ZnO was found to be ~230 m2 g−1. Three different types of pores were detected through HRTEM: type-I, normal pores in silica matrix, pore with ZnO nanoparticles at the boundary (type-II) and type-III, the pores with tiny ZnO nanoparticles (~5–7 nm) inside them. To demonstrate the biocompatibility and cell viability of the nanocapsules, normal and cancerous lymphocyte cells have been chosen and investigated in a systematic way. Fluorescent dye (Rhodamine 6G), anticancer drug e.g., Doxorubicin (DOX) were loaded in all types of pores, and EtBr-labeled DNA molecules were loaded efficiently into the mesopores of second and third types of the composite nanocapsules to manifest the characteristic of mesoporous, and to find out its loading efficacy. The release kinetics of Rhodamine 6G and DOX were studied. The results highlight the potential of novel functional mesoporous SiO2–ZnO nanoparticles for using as the carrier of drugs and formation of “SiOZO-plex”, a complex of mesoporous SiO2–ZnO with DNA for gene delivery applications.
KeywordsZnO–SiO2 SiOZO-plex Mesoporous nanocapsules DNA DOX
Authors would like to acknowledge the financial support from the University of Hyderabad (UoH) “START of GRANT” (Ref:UH/F&A/2011-12/SG) and UPE-II GRANT (UPE-II/R-10). Dr. Mrinal Bhattachariya (UoH) for providing plasmid DNA, and School of Life Science, UoH for supporting with cell culture facilities and for biological studies.
- Baek M, Kim MK, Cho HJ, Lee JA, Yu J, Chung HE, Choi SJ (2011) Factors influencing the cytotoxicity of zinc oxide nanoparticles: particle size and surface charge. J Phys 304:012044Google Scholar
- Baleizao C, Gigante B, Das D, Alvaro M, Garcia H, Corma A. (2003) Synthesis and catalytic activity of a chiral periodic mesoporous organosilica (ChiMO). ChemCommun: 1860–1861Google Scholar
- Cho S, Jung SH, Lee KH (2008) Structure of tetrakis (melaminium) bis(dihydrogenphosphate) monohydrogenphosphatetrihydrate from X-ray powder diffraction and solid-state NMR spectroscopy. J Phys Chem C112:12769–12776Google Scholar
- de Fougerolles A, Vornlocher HP, Maraganore J, Lieberman J (2007) Interfering with disease: a progress report on siRNA-based therapeutics. J Nat Rev Drug Discovery 6(6):443–453Google Scholar
- Hatton BD, Landskron K, Whitnall W, Perovic DD, Ozin GA (2005) Spin coated mesoporous organosilica thin film toward a new generation low dielectric constant material. Adv Mater 15:823–829Google Scholar
- Musyanovych AK, Landfester G, Auernhammer K,Butt HJ, Vollmer D (2008) In: Surface and interfacial forces––from fundamentals to applications, 134th edn. pp 120–127Google Scholar
- Paula AR, Ferro M, Guerreiro A, Gonza G (2010b) Engineering the crystal growth behavior: “On substrate” MOD formation of ZnO hollow spheres. Appl Surf Sci 256(2010):3281–3285Google Scholar
- Rimmer S, Carter S, Rutkaite R, Haycock JW, Swanson L (2007) Highly branched poly-(N-isopropyl acrylamide)s with arginine–glycine–aspartic acid (RGD)- or COOH-chain ends that form sub-micron stimulus-responsive particles above the critical solution temperature. Soft Matter 3:971–973CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Tang Q, Zhou W, Shen J, Zhang W, Kong L, Qian Y (2004) A template-free aqueous route to ZnO nanorod arrays with high optical property. Chem Commun 712–713Google Scholar
- Zhang H, Ji Z, Xia T, Meng H, Low-Kam C, Liu R, Pokhrel S, Lin S, Wang X, Liao YP, Wang M, Li L, Rallo R, Zhao J, Wu L, Zhi J (2008) Fabrication of micropatterned ZnO/SiO2 core/shell nanorod arrays on a nanocrystalline diamond film and their application to DNA hybridization detection. J Mater Chem 18:2459–2465CrossRefGoogle Scholar