Journal of Nanoparticle Research

, 15:1888 | Cite as

Low density lipoproteins mediated nanoplatforms for cancer targeting

  • Anupriya Jain
  • Keerti Jain
  • Prashant Kesharwani
  • Narendra K. JainEmail author


Chemotherapy is a foremost remedial approach for the treatment of localized and metastasized tumors. In order to explore new treatment modalities for cancer, it is important to identify qualitative or quantitative differences in metabolic processes between normal and malignant cells. One such difference may be that of increased receptor-mediated cellular uptake of low density lipoproteins (LDLs) by cancer cells. Lipoproteins in general and specifically LDL are ideal candidates for loading and delivering cancer therapeutic and diagnostic agents due to their biocompatibility. By mimicking the endogenous shape and structure of lipoproteins, the reconstituted lipoproteins can remain in circulation for an extended period of time, while largely evading the reticuloendothelial cells in the body’s defenses. In this account, we review the field of low density inspired nanoparticles in relation to the delivery of cancer imaging and therapeutic agents. LDL has instinctive cancer targeting potential and has been used to incorporate various lipophillic molecules to transport them to tumors. Nature’s method of rerouting LDL provides a strategy to extend the cancer targeting potential of lipoproteins far off its constricted purview. In this review, we have discussed the various aspects of LDL including its role in cancer imaging and chemotherapy in retrospect and prospect and current efforts aimed to further improve the delivery efficacy of LDL–drug complexes with reduced chances of drug resistance leading to optimal drug delivery. This review provides a strong support for the concept of using LDL as a drug carrier.


Lipoproteins Low density lipoprotein (LDL) Chemotherapy Drug carrier Targeted drug delivery 



ATP-Binding Cassette Transporter


AcylCoA:Cholesterol Acyltransferase


Acetylated LDL




Acute lymphocytic leukemia


Acute myeloid leukemia


Adaptin protein

Apo B-100

Apolipoprotein B-100

Apo E

Apolipoprotein E


Basic helix–loop–helix leucine zipper


Boron neutron capture therapy


Chlorin e6


Conjugated linoleic acid

COP-2 vesicle

Coat protein complex coated vesicle


Cyclo-oxygenase 2


Computed tomography


1,1′-Dioctyl-3,3,3′,3′-tetra methyl indocarbocyanide


Dulbecco’s modified Eagle’s medium








Differential scanning calorimetry


Extracellular membrane


Ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid


Epidermal growth factor


Electron microscopy


Fractional clearance rate




Folate receptors


High density lipoprotein

HepG2 cells

Human hepatoma cell line

HMGCoA reductase

3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase


Intercellular adhesion molecule-1


Insulin-induced gene1/2


Lipoprotein-based nanoplatform


Low density emulsion


Low density lipoproteins


Low density lipoprotein receptor


Luteinizing hormone releasing hormone


Mitogen-activated protein kinases


Methylated LDL


Magnetic resonance imaging


3(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide




Near infra red imaging


Near infra red imaging fluorophore




Oxidized LDL


Photodynamic therapy


Positron emission tomography


Prostaglandin E2


Protein kinase C






Reticulo endothelial system


Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction


Sterol cleavage activating protein


Sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis


Tetra-t-butyl silicon naphthalocyanine bisoleate


Tetra-t-butyl silicon phthalocyanine bearing two oleate moieties at its axial positions


Specific proteases1/2


Single-photon emission computed tomography


Sterol regulatory element


Sterol regulatory element binding protein


Sterol sensing domain


Tumor necrosis factor


Very low density lipoprotein



The author Ms. Anupriya Jain is thankful to University Grant Commission (UGC), New Delhi, India for providing financial assistance in the form of Junior Research Fellowship (JRF) during this work.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Anupriya Jain
    • 1
  • Keerti Jain
    • 1
  • Prashant Kesharwani
    • 1
  • Narendra K. Jain
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Pharmaceutics Research Laboratory, Department of Pharmaceutical SciencesDr. H. S. Gour UniversitySagarIndia

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