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Nanodiamond internalization in cells and the cell uptake mechanism

  • E. Perevedentseva
  • S.-F. Hong
  • K.-J. Huang
  • I.-T. Chiang
  • C.-Y. Lee
  • Y.-T. Tseng
  • C.-L. ChengEmail author
Research Paper

Abstract

Cell type-dependent penetration of nanodiamond in living cells is one of the important factors for using nanodiamond as cellular markers/labels, for drug delivery as well as for other biomedical applications. In this work, internalization of 100 nm nanodiamonds by A549 lung human adenocarcinoma cell, Beas-2b non-tumorigenic human bronchial epithelial cell, and HFL-1 fibroblast-like human fetal lung cell is studied and compared. The penetration of nanodiamond into the cells was observed using confocal fluorescence imaging and Raman imaging methods. Visualization of the nanodiamond in cells allows comparison of the internalization for diamond nanoparticles in cancer A549 cell, non-cancer HFL-1, and Beas-2b cells. The dose-dependent and time-dependent behavior of nanodiamond uptake is observed in both cancer as well as non-cancer cells. The mechanism of nanodiamond uptake by cancer and non-cancer cells is analyzed by blocking different pathways. The uptake of nanodiamond in both cancer and non-cancer cells was found predominantly via clathrin-dependent endocytosis. In spite of observed similarity in the uptake mechanism for cancer and non-cancer cells, the nanodiamond uptake for cancer cell quantitatively exceeds the uptake for non-cancer cells, for the studied cell lines. The observed difference in internalization of nanodiamond by cancer and non-cancer cells is discussed.

Keywords

Nanodiamond Cell Confocal microscopy Raman mapping Endocytosis 

Abbreviations

QD

Quantum dots

ND

Nanodiamond

HTHP

High-temperature/high-pressure method

PDL

Population doubling level

DMEM

Dulbecco’s modified eagle medium

PBS

Phosphate buffered saline

SSC

Median side scatter change

EDX

Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy

TEM

Transmission electron microscopy

AFM

Atomic force microscopy

RME

Receptor-mediated endocytosis

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors would like to thank the National Science Council (NSC) of Taiwan for financially supporting this project through National Nano Science and Technology Program under grant NSC-99-2120-M259-001.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • E. Perevedentseva
    • 1
    • 2
  • S.-F. Hong
    • 3
  • K.-J. Huang
    • 3
  • I.-T. Chiang
    • 1
  • C.-Y. Lee
    • 1
  • Y.-T. Tseng
    • 3
  • C.-L. Cheng
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of PhysicsNational Dong Hwa UniversityHualienTaiwan
  2. 2.P. N. Lebedev Physics Institute of Russian Academy of SciencesMoscowRussia
  3. 3.Department of Life SciencesNational Dong Hwa UniversityHualienTaiwan

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