Temperature effects on the nitric acid oxidation of industrial grade multiwalled carbon nanotubes

  • Nádia F. AndradeEmail author
  • Diego Stéfani T. MartinezEmail author
  • Amauri J. PaulaEmail author
  • José V. Silveira
  • Oswaldo L. AlvesEmail author
  • Antonio G. Souza FilhoEmail author
Research Paper


In this study, we report an oxidative treatment of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) by using nitric acid at different temperatures (25–175 °C). The analyzed materials have diameters varying from 10 to 40 nm and majority lengths between 3 and 6 μm. The characterization results obtained by different techniques (e.g., field emission scanning electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy, Braunauer, Emmet and Teller method, ζ-potential and confocal Raman spectroscopy) allowed us to access the effects of temperature treatment on the relevant physico-chemical properties of the MWCNTs samples studied in view of an integrated perspective to use these samples in a bio-toxicological context. Analytical microbalance measurements were used to access the purity of samples (metallic residue) after thermogravimetric analysis. Confocal Raman spectroscopy measurements were used to evaluate the density of structural defects created on the surface of the tubes due to the oxidation process by using 2D Raman image. Finally, we have demonstrated that temperature is an important parameter in the generation of oxidation debris (a byproduct which has not been properly taken into account in the literature) in the industrial grade MWCNTs studied after nitric acid purification and functionalization.


Carbon nanotube Functionalization Physico-chemical properties Oxidation debris 



The authors acknowledge partial funding from CAPES through PROCAD and NANOBIOTEC programs and from CNPq-MCTI through INCTs Inomat and NanoBioSimes. A.G.S.F. acknowledges funding from Fundação Cearense de Apoio ao Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (FUNCAP) through PRONEX (Grant PR2-0054-00022.01.00/11) and CNPq (Grants 482767/2010-3 and 307317/2010-2). Finally, we also demonstrated that only an integrated characterization approach will make possible the association of the MWCNTs features with the biological effects manifested from the insertion of these nanomaterials in the nanobiotechnological context


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Departamento de FísicaUniversidade Federal do CearáFortalezaBrazil
  2. 2.Laboratório de Química do Estado Sólido (LQES), Instituto de QuímicaUniversidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP)CampinasBrazil

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