Gold nanoparticles: role of size and surface chemistry on blood protein adsorption

  • F. Benetti
  • M. Fedel
  • L. Minati
  • G. Speranza
  • C. Migliaresi
Research Paper

Abstract

Material interaction with blood proteins is a critical issue, since it could influence the biological processes taking place in the body following implantation/injection. This is particularly important in the case of nanoparticles, where innovative properties, such as size and high surface to volume ratio can lead to a behavioral change with respect to bulk macroscopic materials and could be responsible for a potential risk for human health. The aim of this work was to compare gold nanoparticles (AuNP) and planar surfaces to study the role of surface curvature moving from the macro- to the nano-size in the process of blood protein adsorption. In the course of the study, different protocols were tested to optimize the analysis of protein adsorption on gold nanoparticles. AuNP with different size (10, 60 and 200 nm diameter) and surface coatings (citrate and polyethylene glycol) were carefully characterized. The stabilizing action of blood proteins adsorbed on AuNP was studied measuring the variation of size and solubility of the nanoparticles following incubation with single protein solutions (human serum albumin and fibrinogen) and whole blood plasma. In addition, we developed a method to elute proteins from AuNP to study the propensity of gold materials to adsorb plasma proteins in function of dimensional characteristics and surface chemistry. We showed a different efficacy of the various eluting media tested, proving that even the most aggressive agent cannot provide a complete detachment of the protein corona. Enhanced protein adsorption was evidenced on AuNP if compared to gold laminae (bare and PEGylated) used as macroscopic control, probably due to the superior AuNP surface reactivity.

Keywords

Gold nanoparticles Surface chemistry Blood plasma Protein adsorption Protein corona PEGylation 

References

  1. Cedervall T, Lynch I, Lindman S, Berggard T, Thulin E et al (2007) Understanding the nanoparticle-protein corona using methods to quantify exchange rates and affinities of protein for nanoparticles. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 104:2050–2055CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Daniel MC, Astruc D (2004) Gold nanoparticles: assembly, supramolecular chemistry, quantum-size-related properties, and applications toward biology, catalysis, and nanotechnology. Chem Rev 104:293–346CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Davis ME, Chen Z, Shin DM (2008) Nanoparticle therapeutics: an emerging treatment modality for cancer. Nat Rev Drug Discov 7:771–782CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Dell’Orco D, Lundqvist M, Oslakovic C, Cedervall T, Linse S (2010) Modeling the time evolution of the nanoparticle-protein corona in a body fluid. PLoS ONE. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0010949 Google Scholar
  5. Dobrovolskaia M, Patrick AK, Zhang J, Clogston JD, Ayub N et al (2009) Interaction of colloidal gold nanoparticles with human blood: effects on particle size and analysis of plasma protein binding protein binding profiles. Nanomed Nanotechnol Biol Med 5:106–117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Gorbet MB, Sefton MV (2004) Biomaterial-associated thrombosis: roles of coagulation factors, complement, platelets and leukocytes. Biomaterials 25:5681–5703CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Huang X, Jain PK, El-Sayed IH, El-Sayed MA (2007) Gold nanoparticles: interesting optical properties and recent applications in cancer diagnostics and therapy. Nanomedicine 2:681–693CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Krishnan S, Weinman CJ, Ober CK (2008) Advances in polymers for anti-biofouling surfaces. J Mater Chem 18:3405–3413CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Lacerda SH, Park JJ, Meuse C, Pristinski D, Becker ML, Karim A et al (2010) Interaction of gold nanoparticles with common human blood proteins. ACS Nano 4:365–379CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Love JC, Estroff LA, Kriebel JK, Nuzzo RG, Whitesides GM (2005) Self-assembled monolayers of thiolates on metals as a form of nanotechnology. Chem Rev 105:1103–1169CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Lynch I, Cedervall T, Lundqvist M, Cabaleiro Lago C, Linse S, Dawson KA (2007) The nanoparticle-protein complex as a biological entity; a complex fluids and surface science challenge for the 21st century. Adv Colloid Interface Sci 134–135:167–174CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Mahmoudi M, Lynch I, Ejtehadi MR, Monopoli MP, Bombelli FB, Laurent S (2011) Protein-nanoparticle interactions: opportunities and challenges. Chem Rev 111:5610–5637CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Qian X, Peng X, Ansari DO, Yin-goen Q, Chen GZ, Shin DM et al (2008) In vivo tumor targeting and spectroscopic detection with surface-enhanced Raman nanoparticle tags. Nat Biotechnol 26:83–90CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Salata OV (2004) Applications of nanoparticles in biology and medicine. J Nanobiotechnol 2:3CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Walkey CD, Chan WCW (2012) Understanding and controlling the interaction of nanomaterials with proteins in a physiological environment. Chem Soc Rev 41:2780–2799CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Walkey CD, Olsen JB, Guo H, Emili A, Chan WCW (2011) Nanoparticle size and surface chemistry determine serum protein adsorption and macrophage uptake. J Am Chem Soc 134:2139–2147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Zhang L, Gu FX, Chan JM, Wang AZ, Langer RS, Farokhzad OC (2008) Nanoparticles in medicine: therapeutic applications and developments. Clin Pharmacol Ther 83:761–769CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • F. Benetti
    • 1
    • 2
  • M. Fedel
    • 1
    • 2
  • L. Minati
    • 3
  • G. Speranza
    • 3
  • C. Migliaresi
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.BIOtech Research CentreTrentoItaly
  2. 2.Department of Industrial EngineeringTrentoItaly
  3. 3.Fondazione Bruno KesslerTrentoItaly

Personalised recommendations