Advertisement

Ag nanowires: large-scale synthesis via a trace-salt-assisted solvothermal process and application in transparent electrodes

  • Jinting Jiu
  • Tohru Sugahara
  • Masaya Nogi
  • Katsuaki Suganuma
Research Paper

Abstract

Ag nanowire (AgNW) films are receiving increasing attention as new transparent conductive films poised to replace indium tine oxide materials. However, coating of AgNW surfaces with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and other impurities during synthesis causes large contact resistance between the wires leading to low conductivities in the absence of additional treatments to fuse the overlapped AgNWs together. In the present work, we demonstrated a simple method to synthesize AgNWs by the reduction of AgNO3 using PVP as the reducing agent assisted by trace amounts of salts in ethanol. The shape and yield of the AgNWs depended significantly on the concentrations of these trace salts and on reaction temperatures. The silver nanowires were about 5–20 μm in length and showed a uniform diameter of about 70 nm. A detailed growth mechanism of the AgNWs has been proposed on the basis of the observations recorded by varying these synthesis parameters. Further, the AgNWs were used to form a transparent film, which without any additional treatments showed a sheet resistance of 10.4 Ω/sq and a transmittance of 81.9 % at 550 nm. The performance of the films was attributed to the trace amounts of residual impurities on the surface of the AgNWs and to the special V-shaped morphology of the wires prepared with the solvothermal process.

Keywords

Ag nanowires Solvothermal synthesis Polyvinylpyrrolidone Trace salt additives V-shaped wires Transparent Ag films 

Supplementary material

11051_2013_1588_MOESM1_ESM.docx (472 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 472 kb)

References

  1. Bai J, Li Y, Yang S, Du J, Wang S, Zhang C, Yang Q, Chen X (2007) Synthesis of AgCl/PAN composite nanofibres using an electrospinning method. Nanotechnology 18:305601CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Batabyal SK, Basu C, Das AR, Sanyal GSJ (2007) Green chemical synthesis of silver nanowires and microfibers using starch. Biobased Mater Bioenergy 1:143–147Google Scholar
  3. Chen D, Qiao X, Qiu X, Chen J, Jiang R (2010) Convenient synthesis of silver nanowires with adjustable diameters via a solvothermal method. J Colloid Inter Sci 344:286–291CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Chen D, Zhu G, Zhu X, Qiao X, Chen J (2011) Controlled synthesis of monodisperse silver nanocubes via a solvothermal method. J Mater Sci: Mater Electron 22:1788–1795CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Hu JQ, Chen Q, Xie ZX, Han GB, Wang RH, Ren B, Zhang Y, Yang ZL, Tian ZQ (2004) A simple and effective route for the synthesis of crystalline silver nanorods and nanowires. Adv Funct Mater 14:183–189CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Hu L, Kim HS, Lee J, Peumans P, Cui Y (2010) Scalable coating and properties of transparent, flexible, silver nanowire electrodes. ACS Nano 4:2955–2963CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Jeong S, Woo K, Kin D, Lim S, Kim JS, Shin H, Xia Y, Moon J (2008) Controlling the thickness of the surface oxide layer on Cu nanoparticles for the fabrication of conductive structures by ink-jet printing. Adv Funct Mater 18:679–686CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Jiang XC, Xiong SX, Tian ZA, Chen CY, Chen WM, Yu AB (2011) Twinned structure and growth of V-shaped silver nanowires generated by a polyol-thermal approach. J Phys Chem C 115:1800–1810CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Jiu J, Murai K, Kim D, Kim K, Suganuma K (2009) Preparation of Ag nanorods with high yield by polyol process. Mater Chem Phys 114:333–338CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Jiu J, Murai K, Suganuma K (2010) Synthesis of silver nanorods and application for die attach material in devices. J Mater Sci: Mater Electron 21:713–718CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Jiu J, Tokuno T, Nogi M, Suganuma K (2012) Synthesis and application of Ag nanowires via a trace salt assisted hydrothermal process. J Nanopart Res 14:975CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Korte KE, Skrabalak SE, Xia Y (2008) Rapid synthesis of silver nanowires through a CuCl- or CuCl2-mediated polyol process. J Mater Chem 18:437–441CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Kottmann JP, Martin OJF (2001) Influence of the cross section and the permittivity on the plasmon-resonance spectrum of silver nanowires. Appl Phys B 73:299–304CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Kundu S, Huitink D, Wang K, Liang H (2010) Photochemical formation of electrically conductive silver nanowires on polymer scaffolds. J Colloid Interface Sci 344:334–342CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Lee JY, Connor ST, Cui Y, Peumans P (2008) Solution-processed metal nanowire mesh transparent electrodes. Nano Lett 8:689–692CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Murphy CJ, Jana NR (2002) Controlling the aspect ratio of inorganic nanorods and nanowires. Adv Mater 14:80–82CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Riveros G, Green S, Cortes A, Gomez H, Marotti RE, Dalchiele EA (2006) Silver nanowire arrays electrochemically grown into nanoporous anodic alumina templates. Nanotechnology 17:561–570CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Shi H, Hu B, Yu X, Zhao R, Ren X, Liu S, Liu J, Feng M, Xu A, Yu S (2010) Ordering of disordered nanowires: spontaneous formation of highly aligned ultralong Ag nanowire films at oil–water–air interface. Adv Funct Mater 20:958–964CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Staleva H, Skrabalak SE, Carey CR, Kosel T, Xia Y, Hartland GV (2009) Coupling to light, and transport and dissipation of energy in silver nanowires. Phys Chem Chem Phys 11:5889–5896CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Sun Y (2010) Silver nanowires: unique templates for functional nanostructures. Nanoscale 2:1626–1642CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Sun X, Li Y (2005) Cylindrical silver nanowires: preparation, structure, and optical properties. Adv Mater 17:2626–2630CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Sun Y, Gates B, Mayers B, Xia Y (2002a) Crystalline silver nanowires by soft solution processing. Nano Lett 2:165–168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Sun Y, Yin Y, Mayer B, Herricks T, Xia Y (2002b) Uniform silver nanowires synthesis by reducing AgNO3 with ethylene glycol in the presence of seeds and poly(vinyl pyrrolidone). Chem Mater 14:4736–4745CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Tang X, Tsuji M, Jiang P, Nishioa M, Janga S, Yoon S (2009) Rapid and high-yield synthesis of silver nanowires using air-assisted polyol method with chloride ions. Colloids Surf A: Physicochem Eng Aspects 338:33–39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Toriyama T, Ishiwatari T (2008) Preparation of glue joints and bridges between Ag nanowires and their metallization. A possible method for nano-soldering. J Mater Chem 18:5537–5542CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Wang X, Yuan Z (2010) Electronic transport behavior of diameter-graded Ag nanowires. Phys Lett 374:2267–2269CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Wang Z, Chen X, Liu J, Zhang M, Qian Y (2004) Glucose reduction route synthesis of uniform silver nanowires in large-scale. Chem Lett 33:1160–1161CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Wang Z, Liu J, Chen X, Wan J, Qian Y (2005) A simple hydrothermal route to large-scale synthesis of uniform silver nanowires. Chem Eur J 11:160–163CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Wiley B, Herricks T, Sun Y, Xia Y (2004) Polyol synthesis of silver nanoparticles: use of chloride and oxygen to promote the formation of single-crystal, truncated cubes and tetrahedrons. Nano Lett 4:1733–1739CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Yang Y, Matsubara S, Xiong L, Hayakawa T, Nogami MJ (2007) Solvothermal synthesis of multiple shapes of silver nanoparticles and their SERS properties. Phys Chem C 111:9095–9104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. You T, Xu S, Sun S, Song X (2009) Controllable synthesis of pentagonal silver nanowires via a simple alcohol-thermal method. Mater Lett 63:920–922CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Yu Z, Zhang Q, Li L, Chen Q, Niu X, Liu J, Pei Q (2011) Highly flexible silver nanowire electrodes for shape-memory polymer light-emitting diodes. Adv Mater 23:664–668CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Zeng X, Zhang Q, Yu R, Lu C (2010) A new transparent conductor: silver nanowire film buried at the surface of a transparent polymer. Adv Mater 22:4484–4488CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Zhao T, Fan J, Cui J, Liu J, Xu X, Zhu M (2011) Microwave-controlled ultrafast synthesis of uniform silver nanocubes and nanowires. Chem Phys Lett 501:414–418CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Zheng W, Lu X, Wang W, Wang Z, Song M, Wang Y, Wang C (2010) Fabrication of novel Ag nanowires/poly(vinylidene fluoride) nanocomposite film with high dielectric constant. Phys Status Solidi A 207:1870–1873CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jinting Jiu
    • 1
  • Tohru Sugahara
    • 1
  • Masaya Nogi
    • 1
  • Katsuaki Suganuma
    • 1
  1. 1.The Institute of Scientific and Industrial Research (ISIR)Osaka UniversityIbarakiJapan

Personalised recommendations