Multiferroic properties of Tb-doped BiFeO3 nanowires

Research Paper

Abstract

Nanoscale, multifunctional, multiferroic materials possess strong magnetoelectric coupling (ME), open exciting multitudinous ways for designing future nanoelectronic and spintronic device applications. Bulk nanowires (100 nm), pure, and Tb-doped BiFeO3 multiferroic nanowires (20 nm) have been synthesized by colloidal dispersion template-assisted technique. The effects of Tb-doping and size of synthesized nanowires on structural, electrical, magnetic, dielectric, and magnetodielectric properties have been investigated. X-ray diffraction study reveals that doping of Tb in BiFeO3 nanowires leads to structural transformation from rhombohedral to orthorhombic. X-ray photoemission analysis confirms the +3 oxidation state of Fe and high purity of samples. Bulk nanowires exhibit antiferromagnetic characteristics, whereas the Tb-doped BiFeO3 nanowires show ferromagnetic character. Moreover, with increase in Tb concentration, the saturation magnetization increases. Temperature-dependent magnetization study suggests their size-dependent ferro and ferri-magnetic behavior. Polarization versus electric field (P–E) study reveals that pure BiFeO3 nanowires possess elliptical loop; however, doping of Tb results in rectangular loop— portentous good ferroelectric properties. All synthesized samples exhibit frequency-dependent dielectric constant which decreases with increase in frequency and remains fairly constant at higher frequencies. Leakage current density decreases with increase in Tb concentration, and has been found to be three orders of magnitude less than those of bulk BiFeO3 nanowires. The ME coupling in synthesized nanowires was estimated by measuring magnetodielectric. A very high value of ME, 7.2 %, has been found for 15 % Tb-doped BiFeO3 nanowires. In this communication, we, for the first time, report new cue on size-dependent Tb-doped BiFeO3 nanowires, which may be further used to explore its technological device applications.

Keywords

Nanowires Ferroelectricity Multiferroics Spin spiral cycloid Magnetoelectric effect 

Notes

Acknowledgments

One of the authors, Gurmeet Singh Lotey, gratefully acknowledges the Department of Science and Technology (DST), Government of India, for awarding him the INSPIRE (Innovation in Science Pursuit for Inspired Research) fellowship to carry out this research work.

References

  1. Bhushan B, Basumallick A, Vasanthacharya NY, Kumar S, Das D (2010) Sr induced modification of structural, optical and magnetic properties in Bi1−xSrxFeO3 (x = 0, 001, 003, 005 and 007) multiferroic nanoparticles. Solid State Sci 12:1063–1069CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bing L, Binbin H, Zuliang D (2011) Hydrothermal synthesis and magnetic properties of single-crystalline BiFeO3 nanowires. Chem Commun 47:8166–8168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Cao G (2004) Nanostructures and nanomaterials: synthesis, properties, and applications. World Scientific, Imperial College Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
  4. Catalan G (2006) Magnetocapacitance without magnetoelectric coupling. Appl Phys Lett 88:102902CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Cavdar S, Koralay H, Tugluoglu N, Gunen A (2005) Frequency-dependent dielectric characteristics of Tl–Ba–Ca–Cu–O bulk superconductor. Supercond Sci Technol 18:1204–1208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Eerenstein W, Mathur ND, Scott JF (2006) Multiferroic and magnetoelectric materials. Nature 442(17):759–765CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Gao F, Yuan Y, Wang KF, Chen XY, Chen F, Liu JM, Ren ZF (2006) Preparation and photoabsorption characterization of BiFeO3 nanowires. Appl Phys Lett 89:102506CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Guo R, Fang L, Dong W, Zheng F, Shen M (2010) Enhanced photocatalytic activity and ferromagnetism in Gd-doped BiFeO3 nanoparticles. J Phys Chem C 144:21390–21396CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Hench LL, West JL (1990) Principles of electronic Ceramic. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  10. Jaiswal A, Das R, Vivekanand K, Abraham P, Adyanthaya S, Poddar P (2010) Effect of reduced particle size on the magnetic properties of chemically synthesized BiFeO3 nanocrystals. J Phys Chem C 114:2108–2115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Khomchenko VA, Shvartsman VV, Borisov P, Kleemann W, Kiselev DA, Bdikin IK, Vieira JM, Kholkin AL (2009) Effect of Gd substitution on the crystal structure and multiferroic properties of BiFeO3. Acta Mater 57:5137–5145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Liu J, Fang L, Zheng F, Ju S, Shen M (2009) Enhancement of magnetization in Eu doped BiFeO3 nanoparticles. Appl Phys Lett 95:022511CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Lotey GS, Verma NK (2012) Structural, magnetic, and electrical properties of Gd-doped BiFeO3 nanoparticles with reduced particle size. J Nanopart Res 14:742CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Lotey GS, Verma NK (2013) Phase-dependent multiferroism in Dy-doped BiFeO3 nanowires. Superlattices Microstruct 53:184–194CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Lotey GS, Kumar S, Verma NK (2012) Fabrication and electrical characterization of highly ordered copper nanowires. Appl Nanosci 2(7):13Google Scholar
  16. Park TJ, Papaefthymiou GC, Viescas AJ, Moodenbaugh AR, Wong SS (2007) Size dependent magnetic properties of single crystalline multiferroic BiFeO3 nanoparticles. Nano Lett 7(3):766–772CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Qian FZ, Jiang JS, Jiang DM, Zhang W, Liu JH (2010) Multiferroic properties of Bi08Dy02−xLaxFeO3 nanoparticles. J Phys D Appl Phys 43:025403CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Rothery WH, Smallman RE, Haworth CW (1969) The structure of metals and alloys. Metals and Metallurgy Trust of the Institute of Metals and the Institution of Metallurgists, LondonGoogle Scholar
  19. Song GL, Zhangc HX, Wanga TX, Yanga HG, Changa FG (2012) Effect of Sm, Co co-doping on the dielectric and magnetoelectric properties of BiFeO3 polycrystalline ceramics. J Magn Magn Mater 324(13):2121–2126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Takahashi K, Wang Y, Lee K, Cao G (2006) Fabrication and Li+-interaction properties of V2O5–TiO2 composite nanorod arrays. Appl Phys A 82:27–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Vaz CAF, Hoffman J, Ahn CA, Ramesh R (2010) Magnetoelectric coupling effects in multiferroic complex oxide composite structures. Adv Mater 22:2900–2918CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Wang YP, Zhou L, Zhang MF, Chen XP, Liu JM, Liu ZG (2004) Room-temperature saturated ferroelectric polarization in BiFeO3 ceramics synthesized by rapid liquid phase sintering. Appl Phys Lett 84:1731CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Yang H, Wang H, Yoon J, Wang Y, Jain M, Feldmann DM, Dowden PC, MacManus-Driscoll JL, Jia Q (2009) Vertical interface effect on the physical properties of self-assembled nanocomposite epitaxial films. Adv Mater 21:3794–3798CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Zhang Y, Zhang H, Yin J, Zhang H, Chen J, Wang W, Wu G (2010) Structural and magnetic properties in Bi1−xRxFeO3 (x = 0 − 1, R = La, Nd, Sm, Eu and Tb) polycrystalline ceramics. J Magn Magn Mater 322:2251–2255CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Zhao Y, Miao J, Zhang X, Chen Y, Xu XG, Jiang Y (2012) Ultra-thin BiFeO3 nanowires prepared by a sol–gel combustion method: an investigation of its multiferroic and optical properties. J Mater Sci Mater Electron 23:180–184CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Zheng H, Wang J, Lofland SE, Ma Z, Mohaddes-Ardabili Zhao T, Salamanca-Riba L, Shinde SR, Ogale SB, Bai F, Viehland D, Jia Y, Schlom DG, Wuttig M, Roytburd A, Ramesh R (2004) Multiferroic BaTiO3–CoFe2O4 nanostructures. Science 303:661–663CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Nano Research LabSchool of Physics and Materials Science, Thapar UniversityPatialaIndia

Personalised recommendations