Synthesis, characterization, and nonlinear optical properties of graphene oxide functionalized with tetra-amino porphyrin

  • R. YamunaEmail author
  • S. Ramakrishnan
  • Keerthy Dhara
  • R. Devi
  • Nikhil K. KothurkarEmail author
  • E. Kirubha
  • P. K. Palanisamy
Research Paper


The synthesis of a porphyrin–graphene oxide hybrid (GO–TAP) was carried out by covalently functionalizing graphene oxide (GO) with 5,10,15,20 mesotetra (4-aminophenyl) porphyrin (TAP) through an amide linkage. The GO–TAP hybrid has been characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and UV–visible spectroscopy. The peak intensity of the Soret band of the material was suppressed compared to neat TAP. This indicates a strong interaction between the electronic energy level of TAP and GO in the GO–TAP hybrid. The functionalization of GO with TAP significantly improved its solubility and dispersion stability in organic solvents. Scanning electron micrographs reveal that the hybrid was found to be similar to the unmodified GO but slightly more wrinkled. Transmission electron micrographs also demonstrate that GO sheet in the hybrid is more wrinkled with some dark spot due to functionalization. Atomic force microscopy results also reveal that the TAP functionalization increases the thickness of GO sheet to 2.0–3.0 nm from 1.2 to 1.8 nm. We observed improved nonlinear optical and optical limiting properties for the hybrid compared to both graphene oxide and porphyrin. GO–TAP shows fluorescence quenching compared with porphyrin, indicating excellent electron and/or energy transfer to GO from TAP. Thermogravimetric analysis confirms that the GO–TAP hybrid has outstanding thermal stability.


GO–TAP hybrid Covalent functionalization NLO Optical limiting property Fluorescence quenching High thermal stability 



Dr. R. Yamuna and Ms. R. Devi thank the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR, Project No: 01(2256)/08/EMR-II), New Delhi, India for their funding. Ms. D. Keerthy thanks the Department of Science and Technology (DST), India for INSPIRE fellowship.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. Yamuna
    • 1
    Email author
  • S. Ramakrishnan
    • 2
  • Keerthy Dhara
    • 1
  • R. Devi
    • 1
  • Nikhil K. Kothurkar
    • 2
    Email author
  • E. Kirubha
    • 3
  • P. K. Palanisamy
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Sciences, Amrita School of EngineeringAmrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham UniversityCoimbatoreIndia
  2. 2.Department of Chemical Engineering and Material Science, Amrita School of EngineeringAmrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham UniversityCoimbatoreIndia
  3. 3.Department of PhysicsAnna UniversityChennaiIndia

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