Advertisement

The effect of surface coatings on the dustiness of a calcium carbonate nanopowder

  • Garry Burdett
  • Delphine Bard
  • Alexandra Kelly
  • Andrew Thorpe
Research Paper

Abstract

Six calcium carbonate nanopowders that had been functionalized (coated) to enhance their use in a range of industrial applications were compared to the uncoated nanopowder (15–30-nm size range) from which they were made. The nanopowders were first characterized using the standard gravimetric rotating drum dustiness test (EN 15051 2006). All the functionalized powders showed a substantial increase in dustiness compared with the uncoated sample. The largest increase was some ×45, ×90 and ×331 higher for the inhalable, thoracic and respirable fractions, respectively, and would potentially give rise to much higher exposures to workers handling these powders. This article also investigated a range of additional measurement methods to extend the standard dustiness test to measure the particle size distribution and particle number concentrations. Several online instruments were compared in two sets of tests, as well as, offline transmission electron microscopy analysis. The results of these tests are discussed to assess the suitability and limitations of the measurement methods and to assess the best approach for extending the current gravimetric standard to include number concentration and size distribution measurements. It was concluded that questions remain over the performance characteristics of online charge detection instruments such as the FMPS and ELPI for dustiness testing, and such issues need to be resolved before a standardized test can be finalized.

Keywords

Dustiness testing Nanopowder Nanoparticles Functionalization Calcium carbonate 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The study was carried out as part of the EU-funded NANODEVICE Project and describes the results collected at HSL. The study forms part of a sub-project of WP3 carried out in collaboration with a number of partners including: Keld Alstrup Jensen and Ismo Kalevi Koponen at Arbejdsmiljoforskning, Copenhagen, Denmark; Timo Tumoni and Tomi Kanerva Finish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Finland; Minamari Vippola at Tampere University, Tampere, Finland; Christoph Asbach and Burkhard Stahlmecke of the Institute for Energy and Environmental Technology (IUTA), Germany; Oliver Witcher and co-workers at Instiute der National de Recherche et de Securite, Nancy France; and Elsbieta Jankowska, Cenral Instytut Ochrony Pracy—Panstwowy Instyttut Badawczy, Poland. A special thanks are due to Michel Barker and Diane Ciaparra at Tata Steel Europe, Swinden Technology Centre for the loan and support for the ELPI measurements. This publication and the study it describes were funded by the GB Health and Safety Executive, the Health and Safety Laboratory and the EU 7th Framework programme grant agreement no. CP-IP 211464-2. Its contents, including any opinions and/or conclusions expressed, are those of the authors alone, and do not necessarily reflect HSE or EU policy. © British Crown copyright (2011).

References

  1. Hankin SM, Peters SAK, Poland CA, Hansen SF, Holmqvist J, Ross BL, Varet J, Aitken RJ (2011) Specific advice on fulfilling information requirements for nanomaterials under REACH (RIP-oN 2)—final project report RNC/RIP-oN2/FPR/1/FINAL. http://ec.europa.eu/environment/chemicals/nanotech/index.htm#ripo:n
  2. EC 1907/2006 Regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council of 18 December 2006 concerning the Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH), establishing a European Chemicals Agency, amending Directive 1999/45/EC and repealing Council Regulation (EEC) No 793/93 and Commission Regulation (EC) No 1488/94 as well as Council Directive 76/769/EEC and Commission Directives 91/155/EEC, 93/67/EEC, 93/105/EC and 2000/21/EC. Off J Eur Union 396:1–849Google Scholar
  3. EN 15051 (2006) Workplace atmospheres—measurement of the dustiness of bulk materials—requirements and test methods. European Committee for Standardisation, BrusselsGoogle Scholar
  4. Ibaseta N, Biscans B (2007) Ultrafine aerosol emission from the free fall of TiO2 and SiO2 nanopowders. Kona 25:190–204Google Scholar
  5. ISO 7708 (1995) International Organization for Standarization (ISO). Particle size fraction definitions for health-related sampling. ISO, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  6. Jensen K, Koponen I et al (2009) Dustiness behaviour of loose and compacted Bentonite and organoclay powders: what is the difference in exposure risk? J Nanopart Res 11(1):133–146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Jeong C-H, Evans GJ (2009) Inter-comparison of a fast mobility particle sizer and a scanning mobility particle sizer incorporating an ultrafine water-based condensation particle counter. Aerosol Sci Technol 43(4):364–373CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Lal AA, Friedlander SK (2006) On-line measurement of ultrafine aggregate surface area and volume distributions by electrical mobility analysis: I. Theoretical analysis. J Aerosol Sci 37(3):260–271CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Maynard AD (2002) Experimental determination of ultrafine TiO2 deagglomeration in a surrogate pulmonary surfactant: preliminary results. Ann Occup Hyg 46(suppl 1):197–202CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Maynard AD, Baron PA et al (2004) Exposure to carbon nanotube material: aerosol release during the handling of unrefined single-walled carbon nanotube material. J Toxicol Environ Health A 67(1):87–107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Schneider T, Jensen KA (2008) Combined single-drop and rotating drum dustiness test of fine to nanosize powders using a small drum. Ann Occup Hyg 52(1):23–34CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Schneider T, Jensen KA (2009) Relevance of aerosol dynamics and dustiness for personal exposure to manufactured nanoparticles. J Nanopart Res 11(7):1637–1650CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Tsai CJ, Wu CH et al (2009) Dustiness test of nanopowders using a standard rotating drum with a modified sampling train. J Nanopart Res 11(1):121–131CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Tsai CJ, Huang CY et al (2011) Exposure assessment of nano-sized and respirable particles at different workplaces. J Nanopart Res 13(9):4161–4172CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Crown Copyright  2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Garry Burdett
    • 1
  • Delphine Bard
    • 1
  • Alexandra Kelly
    • 1
  • Andrew Thorpe
    • 1
  1. 1.Health and Safety LaboratoryHarpur HillUK

Personalised recommendations