Journal of Nanoparticle Research

, 14:1087 | Cite as

Characterization of carbon nano-onions for heavy metal ion remediation

  • Megan B. Seymour
  • Chunming Su
  • Yang Gao
  • Yongfeng Lu
  • Yusong Li
Research Paper

Abstract

Carbonaceous nanomaterials, such as fullerene C60, carbon nanotubes, and their functionalized derivatives have been demonstrated to possess high sorption capacity for organic and heavy metal contaminants, indicating a potential for remediation application. The actual application of these nanomaterials, however, is often hindered by the high cost of materials and the limited understanding of their mobility in porous media. In this work, carbon nano-onions (CNOs), a relatively new addition to the carbonaceous nanomaterials, were synthesized in a cost-effective way using a laser-assisted combustion synthesis process, and carefully characterized for their potential remediation application. Surface oxidized CNOs possessed 10 times higher sorption capacity than C60 for heavy metal ion contaminants including Pb2+, Cu2+, Cd2+, Ni2+, and Zn2+. CNOs aqueous suspension can be very stable in NaCl solution at ionic strength up to 30 mM and CaCl2 solution at ionic strength up to 4 mM CaCl2 when pH ranged from 5 to 9, which are consistent with environmentally relevant conditions. Interactions of CNOs with iron oxide and silica surfaces under favorable condition were found to be electrostatic in origin. Mobility of CNOs in quartz sands was controlled by electrolyte type and concentration. Approximately 4.4, 25.1, and 92.5 % of injected CNO mass were retained in the sand column in ultrapure water, 1 mM NaCl, and 1 mM CaCl2 solutions, respectively.

Keywords

Carbon nano-onions Characterization Sorption Heavy metal ion Mobility 

References

  1. Burroughs C (2000) Sandia scientists study ‘natural’ alternative to cleaning up uranium contaminated sites: natural attenuation may replace costly traditional remediation techniques. Sandia Lab News, SandiaGoogle Scholar
  2. Chen K, Elimelech M (2006) Aggregation and deposition kinetics of fullerene (C60) nanoparticles. Langmuir 22:10994–11001CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Chen K, Elimelech M (2008) Interaction of fullerene nanoparticles with humic acid and alginate coated silica surfaces: measurements, mechanisms, and environmental implications. Environ Sci Technol 42:7607–7614CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Chen XH, Deng JX, Yang HS, Wu GT, Zhang XB, Peng JC, Li WZ (2001) New method of carbon onion growth by radio-frequency plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition. Chem Phys Lett 336(3–4):201–204CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Chen GC, Shan XQ, Wang YS, Wen B, Pei ZG, Xie YN, Liu T, Pignatello JJ (2009) Adsorption of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol by multi-walled carbon nanotubes as affected by Cu(II). Water Res 43(9):2409–2418CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chen GX, Liu XY, Su CM (2011) Transport and Retention of TiO(2) Rutile nanoparticles in saturated porous media under low-ionic-strength conditions: measurements and mechanisms. Langmuir 27(9):5393–5402CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Elimelech M (1991) Kinetics of capture of colloidal particles in packed beds under attractive double layer interactions. J Colloid Interface Sci 146(2):337–352CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Elimelech M (1994) Effect of particle size on the kinetics of particle deposition under attractive double layer interactions. J Colloid Interface Sci 164:190–199CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Fortner JD, Lyon DY, Sayes CM, Boyd AM, Falkner JC, Hotze EM, Alemany LB, Tao YJ, Guo W, Ausman KD, Colvin VL, Hughes JB (2005) C-60 in water: nanocrystal formation and microbial response. Environ Sci Technol 39(11):4307–4316CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Gao Y, Zhou YS, Park JB, Wang H, He XN, Luo HF, Jiang L, Lu YF (2011) Resonant excitation of precursor molecules in improving the particle crystallinity, growth rate and optical limiting performance of carbon nano-onions. Nanotechnology 22:165604Google Scholar
  11. Katumba G, Mwakikunga BW, Mothibinyane TR (2008) FTIR and Raman spectroscopy of carbon nanoparticles in SiO2, ZnO and NiO matrices. Nanoscale Res Lett 3:421–426CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Kaya A, Yukselen Y (2005) Zeta potential of clay minerals and quartz contaminated by heavy metals. Can Geotech J. 42:1280–1289CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Li YH, Wang SG, Luan ZK, Ding J, Xu CL, Wu DH (2003) Adsorption of cadmium(II) from aqueous solution by surface oxidized carbon nanotubes. Carbon 41(5):1057–1062CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Mauter MS, Elimelech M (2008) Environmental applications of carbon-based nanomaterials. Environ Sci Technol 42(16):5843–5859CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Plonska-Brzezinska M, et al. (2011) Electrochemical properties of oxidized carbon nano-onions: DRIFTS-FTIR and Raman spectroscopic analyses. ChemPhysChemGoogle Scholar
  16. Quevedo I, Tufenkji N (2009) Influence of solution chemistry on the deposition and detachment kinetics of a CdTe quantum dot examined using quartz crystal microbalance. Environ Sci Technol 43:3176–3182CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Rodriguez-Cabo B, Rodil E, Rodriguez H, Soto A, Arce A (2012) Direct preparation of sulfide semiconductor nanoparticles from the corresponding bulk powders in an ionic liquid. Angew Chem Int Ed 51(6):1424–1427CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Roy D et al (2003) Characterisation of carbon nano-onions using Raman spectroscopy. Chem Phys Lett 373:52–56CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Sze A, Erickson D, Li A (2003) Zeta-potential measurement using the Smoluchowski equation and the slope of the current-time relationship in electroosmotic flow. J Colloid Interface Sci 261:402–410CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Ugarte D (1993) Formation mechanism of quasi-spherical carbon particles induced by electron bombardment. Chem Phys Lett 207(4–6):473–479CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. US EPA (2004) Cleaning up the nation’s waste sites: markets and technology trends. EPA 542-R-04-015. Environmental Protection Agency, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  22. Wang YG, Li YS, Fortner JD, Hughes JB, Abriola LM, Pennell KD (2008) Transport and retention of nanoscale C-60 aggregates in water-saturated porous media. Environ Sci Technol 42(10):3588–3594CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Wu CH (2007) Studies of the equilibrium and thermodynamics of the adsorption of Cu2+ onto as-produced and modified carbon nanotubes. J Colloid Interface Sci 311(2):338–346CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Yang K, Zhu LZ, Xing BS (2006) Adsorption of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by carbon nanomaterials. Environ Sci Technol 40(6):1855–1861CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Yao KM, Habibian MM, Omelia CR (1971) Water and waste water filtration––concepts and applications. Environ Sci Technol 5:1105–1112CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Megan B. Seymour
    • 1
  • Chunming Su
    • 2
  • Yang Gao
    • 3
  • Yongfeng Lu
    • 3
  • Yusong Li
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Civil EngineeringUniversity of Nebraska- LincolnLincolnUSA
  2. 2.National Risk Management Research LaboratoryUnited States Environmental Protection AgencyAdaUSA
  3. 3.Department of Electrical EngineeringUniversity of Nebraska- LincolnLincolnUSA

Personalised recommendations