Advertisement

In vitro study revealed different size behavior of different nanoparticles

  • Dirk SchaudienEmail author
  • Jan Knebel
  • Otto Creutzenberg
Brief Communication

Abstract

Toxicity of nanoparticles is depending not only on the size of the primary particles but on the size of their agglomerates. Therefore, further studies are needed to examine the behavior of nanoparticles after they have gotten in contact with cells. The presented study investigated the change of size of different commercially available nanoparticles after applying them to different cell lines such as A549, Calu-3, 16HBE14o and LK004 representative for the different parts of the human lung. The different nanoparticles exhibited differences in behavior of size. TiO2 P25 showed a tendency to increase, whereas TiO2 T805 and Printex® 90 remained more or less at the same size. In contrast, ZnO < 50 nm particles showed a significant decrease of size.

Keywords

Air–liquid interface culture Agglomeration In vitro Nanoparticle 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors thank Gina Geide and Antje Oertel for excellent technical support. This study was granted by Federal Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (BAuA), Friedrich-Henkel-Weg 1-25, 44149 Dortmund, Germany.

References

  1. Aderem A, Underhill DM (1999) Mechanisms of phagocytosis in macrophages. Annu Rev Immunol 17:593–623CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Andreeva AV, Kutuzov MA, Voyno-Yasenetskaya TA (2007) Regulation of surfactant secretion in alveolar type II cells. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 293:L259–L271CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Asgharian B, Price OT (2007) Deposition of ultrafine (nano) particles in the human lung. Inhal Toxicol 19:1045–1054CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bakand S, Hayes A, Dechsakulthorn F (2012) Nanoparticles: a review of particle toxicology following inhalation exposure. Inhal Toxicol 24:125–135CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Borm PJ, Robbins D, Haubold S, Kuhlbusch T, Fissan H, Donaldson K, Schins R, Stone V, Kreyling W, Lademann J, Krutmann J, Warheit D, Oberdorster E (2006) The potential risks of nanomaterials: a review carried out for ECETOC. Part Fibre Toxicol 3:1–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Card JW, Zeldin DC, Bonner JC, Nestmann ER (2008) Pulmonary applications and toxicity of engineered nanoparticles. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 295:L400–L411CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Chen KJ, Fang TH, Hung FY, Ji LW, Chang SJ, Young SJ, Hsiao YJ (2008) The crystallization and physical properties of Al-doped ZnO nanoparticles. Appl Surf Sci 254:5791–5795CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Conner SD, Schmid SL (2003) Regulated portals of entry into the cell. Nature 422:37–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Cozens AL, Yezzi MJ, Kunzelmann K, Ohrui T, Chin L, Eng K, Finkbeiner WE, Widdicombe JH, Gruenert DC (1994) CFTR expression and chloride secretion in polarized immortal human bronchial epithelial cells. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 10:38–47Google Scholar
  10. Donaldson K, Tran L, Jimenez LA, Duffin R, Newby DE, Mills N, MacNee W, Stone V (2005) Combustion-derived nanoparticles: a review of their toxicology following inhalation exposure. Part Fibre Toxicol 2:10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Foster KA, Oster CG, Mayer MM, Avery ML, Audus KL (1998) Characterization of the A549 cell line as a type II pulmonary epithelial cell model for drug metabolism. Exp Cell Res 243:359–366CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Foster KA, Yazdanian M, Audus KL (2001) Microparticulate uptake mechanisms of in vitro cell culture models of the respiratory epithelium. J Pharm Pharmacol 53:57–66CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Geiser M, Rothen-Rutishauser B, Kapp N, Schürch S, Kreyling W, Schulz H, Semmler M, Im Hof V, Heyder J, Gehr P (2005) Ultrafine particles cross cellular membranes by nonphagocytic mechanisms in lungs and in cultured cells. Environ Health Perspect 113:1555–1560CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Giard DJ, Aaronson SA, Todaro GJ, Arnstein P, Kersey JH, Dosik H, Parks WP (1973) In vitro cultivation of human tumors: establishment of cell lines derived from a series of solid tumors. J Natl Cancer Inst 51:1417–1423Google Scholar
  15. Hoet PH, Brüske-Hohlfeld I, Salata OV (2004) Nanoparticles—known and unknown health risks. J Nanobiotechnol 2:12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Jain D, Dodia C, Fisher AB, Bates SR (2005) Pathways for clearance of surfactant protein A from the lung. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 289:L1011–L1018CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Lieber M, Smith B, Szakal A, Nelson-Rees W, Todaro G (1976) A continuous tumor-cell line from a human lung carcinoma with properties of type II alveolar epithelial cells. Int J Cancer 17:62–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Maynard AD, Warheit DB, Philbert MA (2011) The new toxicology of sophisticated materials: nanotoxicology and beyond. Toxicol Sci 120:S109–S129CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Nel A, Xia T, Mädler L, Li N (2006) Toxic potential of materials at the nanolevel. Science 311:622–627CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Oberdörster G, Oberdörster E, Oberdörster J (2005) Nanotoxicology: an emerging discipline evolving from studies of ultrafine particles. Environ Health Perspect 113:823–839CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Pauluhn J (2009a) Pulmonary toxicity and fate of agglomerated 10 and 40 nm aluminium oxyhydroxides following 4-week inhalation exposure of rats: toxic effects are determined by agglomerated, not primary particle size. Toxicol Sci 109:152–167CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Pauluhn J (2009b) Comparative pulmonary response to inhaled nanostructures: considerations on test design and endpoints. Inhal Toxicol 21(Suppl 1):40–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Ritter D, Knebel JW, Aufderheide M, Mohr U (1999) Development of a cell culture model system for routine testing of substances inducing oxidative stress. Toxicol In Vitro 13:745–751CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Shen BQ, Finkbeiner WE, Wine JJ, Mrsny RJ, Widdicombe JH (1994) Calu-3: a human airway epithelial cell line that shows cAMP-dependent Cl secretion. Am J Physiol 266:L493–L501Google Scholar
  25. Simon-Deckers A, Gouget B, Mayne-L’hermite M, Herlin-Boime N, Reynaud C, Carrière M (2008) In vitro investigation of oxide nanoparticle and carbon nanotube toxicity and intracellular accumulation in A549 human pneumocytes. Toxicology 253:137–146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Singh S, Shi T, Duffin R, Albrecht C, van Berlo D, Höhr D, Fubini B, Martra G, Fenoglio I, Borm PJ, Schins RP (2007) Endocytosis, oxidative stress and IL-8 expression in human lung epithelial cells upon treatment with fine and ultrafine TiO2: role of the specific surface area and of surface methylation of the particles. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 222:141–151CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Smith BT (1977) Cell line A549: a model system for the study of alveolar type II cell function. Am Rev Respir Dis 115:285–293Google Scholar
  28. Stearns RC, Paulauskis JD, Godleski JJ (2001) Endocytosis of ultrafine particles by A549 cells. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 24:108–115Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Fraunhofer Institute for Toxicology and Experimental MedicineHannoverGermany

Personalised recommendations