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A simple polyol-free synthesis route to Gd2O3 nanoparticles for MRI applications: an experimental and theoretical study

  • Maria Ahrén
  • Linnéa Selegård
  • Fredrik Söderlind
  • Mathieu Linares
  • Joanna Kauczor
  • Patrick Norman
  • Per-Olov Käll
  • Kajsa Uvdal
Research Paper

Abstract

Chelated gadolinium ions, e.g., Gd-DTPA, are today used clinically as contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). An attractive alternative contrast agent is composed of gadolinium oxide nanoparticles as they have shown to provide enhanced contrast and, in principle, more straightforward molecular capping possibilities. In this study, we report a new, simple, and polyol-free way of synthesizing 4–5-nm-sized Gd2O3 nanoparticles at room temperature, with high stability and water solubility. The nanoparticles induce high-proton relaxivity compared to Gd-DTPA showing r 1 and r 2 values almost as high as those for free Gd3+ ions in water. The Gd2O3 nanoparticles are capped with acetate and carbonate groups, as shown with infrared spectroscopy, near-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and combined thermogravimetric and mass spectroscopy analysis. Interpretation of infrared spectroscopy data is corroborated by extensive quantum chemical calculations. This nanomaterial is easily prepared and has promising properties to function as a core in a future contrast agent for MRI.

Keywords

Gadolinium oxide Synthesis Relaxivity XPS IR Toxicity 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The present work is financed by grants from VINNOVA within the program Innovations for future health, Multifunctional Nanoprobes for Biomedical Visualization Dnr: 2008-03011, the Centre in Nanoscience and Technology at LiTH (CeNano) and Swedish research council (Grant No. 621-2010-5014). M.L. thanks SERC (Swedish e–Science Research Center) for funding and SNIC for providing computer resources. We also thank A. Preobrajenski, manager for Beamline D1011 at MaxLab in Lund, for the assistance during our NEXAFS measurements.

Supplementary material

11051_2012_1006_MOESM1_ESM.doc (356 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOC 355 kb)

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Maria Ahrén
    • 1
  • Linnéa Selegård
    • 1
  • Fredrik Söderlind
    • 2
  • Mathieu Linares
    • 3
  • Joanna Kauczor
    • 3
  • Patrick Norman
    • 3
  • Per-Olov Käll
    • 4
  • Kajsa Uvdal
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of Molecular Surface Physics and Nanoscience, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology (IFM)Linköping UniversityLinköpingSweden
  2. 2.Division of Nanostructured Materials, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology (IFM)Linköping UniversityLinköpingSweden
  3. 3.Division of Computational Physics, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology (IFM)Linköping UniversityLinköpingSweden
  4. 4.Division of Chemistry, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology (IFM)Linköping UniversityLinköpingSweden

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