Structural, magnetic, and electrical properties of Gd-doped BiFeO3 nanoparticles with reduced particle size
Pure and Gd-doped BiFeO3 nanoparticles have been synthesized by sol–gel method. The significant effects of size and Gd-doping on structural, electrical, and magnetic properties have been investigated. X-ray diffraction study reveals that the pure BiFeO3 nanoparticles possess rhombohedral structure, but with 10% Gd-doping complete structural transformation from rhombohedral to orthorhombic has been observed. The particle size of pure and Gd-doped BiFeO3 nanoparticles, calculated using Transmission electron microscopy, has been found to be in the range 25–15 nm. Pure and Gd-doped BiFeO3 nanoparticles show ferromagnetic character, and the magnetization increases with decrease in particle size and increase in doping concentration. Scanning electron microscopy study reveals that grain size decreases with increase in Gd concentration. Well-saturated polarization versus electric field loop is observed for the doped samples. Leakage current density decreases by four orders by doping Gd in BiFeO3. The incorporation of Gd in BiFeO3 enhances spin as well as electric polarization at room temperature. The possible origin of enhancement in these properties has been explained on the basis of dopant and its concentration, phase purity, small particle, and grain size.
KeywordsNanoparticles Multiferroics Ferroelectricity Ferromagnetism Leakage current Spin spiral cycloid structure
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