Journal of Nanoparticle Research

, Volume 13, Issue 12, pp 6821–6835 | Cite as

Toxicity of citrate-capped AuNPs: an in vitro and in vivo assessment

  • Stefania Sabella
  • Virgilio Brunetti
  • Giuseppe Vecchio
  • Antonio Galeone
  • Gabriele Maiorano
  • Roberto Cingolani
  • Pier Paolo PompaEmail author
Research Paper


In this study, we show that 15 nm citrate-capped AuNPs exert a remarkable toxicity in living systems. The assessment was performed by using well-characterized AuNPs, the combination of in vitro and in vivo models (namely two different cell lines and Drosophila melanogaster), exposure to low dosages of nanoparticles (in the sub-nanomolar concentration range), along with the application of several biological assays to monitor different aspects of the toxic effects, such as viability, genotoxicity, and molecular biomarkers.


Nanotoxicology Gold nanoparticles In vitro In vivo Environmental, health and safety (EHS) 



The authors gratefully acknowledge M.A. Malvindi for help during experiments and V. Fiorelli for the expert technical assistance.

Supplementary material

11051_2011_590_MOESM1_ESM.docx (702 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 702 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Stefania Sabella
    • 1
  • Virgilio Brunetti
    • 1
  • Giuseppe Vecchio
    • 1
  • Antonio Galeone
    • 1
  • Gabriele Maiorano
    • 1
  • Roberto Cingolani
    • 2
  • Pier Paolo Pompa
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Italian Institute of Technology (IIT)Center for Bio-Molecular Nanotechnology@UniLeArnesanoItaly
  2. 2.Italian Institute of TechnologyCentral Research LaboratoriesGenoaItaly

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