Effect of gold nanoparticles on adipogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells
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Gold nanoparticles are very attractive for biomedical products. However, there is a serious lack of information concerning the biological activity of nanosized gold in human tissue cells. An influence of nanoparticles on stem cells might lead to unforeseen consequences to organ and tissue functions as long as all cells arising from the initial stem cell might be subsequently damaged. Therefore the effect of negatively charged gold nanoparticles (9 and 95 nm), which are certified as reference material for preclinical biomedical research, on the adipogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) is investigated here. Bone marrow hMSCs are chosen as differentiation model since bone marrow hMSCs are well characterized and their differentiation into the adipogenic lineage shows clear and easily detectable differentiation. In this study effects of gold nanoparticles on adipogenic differentiation are analyzed regarding fat storage and mitochondrial activity after different exposure times (4–21 days). Using time lapse microscopy the differentiation progress under chronically gold nanoparticle treatment is continuously investigated. In this preliminary study, chronically treatment of adipogenic differentiating hMSCs with gold nanoparticles resulted in a reduced number and size of lipid vacuoles and reduced mitochondrial activity depending on the applied concentration and the surface charge of the particles.
KeywordsGold nanoparticles Human mesenchymal stem cells Adipogenic differentiation Toxicity Cellular uptake Health effects
We thank Dipl.-Chem. Andreas Henkel (Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Institute for Physical Chemistry, Mainz, Germany) for his assistance with TEM and Norbert Pütz (Saarland University.
Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Germany) and for his help with the SEM. We also thank Yulia Zaytseva for her technical assistance in the electron microscopy study.
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