Synthesis, characterization and role of zero-valent iron nanoparticle in removal of hexavalent chromium from chromium-spiked soil
- 2.2k Downloads
Chromium is an important industrial metal used in various products/processes. Remediation of Cr contaminated sites present both technological and economic challenges, as conventional methods are often too expensive and difficult to operate. In the present investigation, Zero-valent iron (Fe0) nanoparticles were synthesized, characterized, and were tested for removal of Cr(VI) from the soil spiked with Cr(VI). Fe0 nanoparticles were synthesized by the reduction of ferric chloride with sodium borohydride and were characterized by UV–Vis (Ultra violet–Visible) and FTIR (Fourier transform infrared) spectroscopy. The UV–Vis spectrum of Fe0 nanoparticles suspended in 0.8% Carboxymethyl cellulose showed its absorption maxima at 235 nm. The presence of one band at 3,421 cm−1 ascribed to OH stretching vibration and the second at 1,641 cm−1 to OH bending vibration of surface-adsorbed water indicates the formation of ferrioxyhydroxide (FeOOH) layer on Fe0 nanoparticles. The mean crystalline dimension of Fe0 nanoparticles calculated by XRD (X-ray diffraction) using Scherer equation was 15.9 nm. Average size of Fe0 nanoparticles calculated from TEM (Transmission electron microscopy) images was found around 26 nm. Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) also showed approximately the same size. Batch experiments were performed using various concentration of Fe0 nanoparticles for reduction of soil spiked with 100 mg kg−1 Cr(VI). The reduction potential of Fe0 nanoparticles at a concentration of 0.27 g L−1 was found to be 100% in 3 h. Reaction kinetics revealed a pseudo-first order kinetics. Factors like pH, contact time, stabilizer, and humic acid facilitates the reduction of Cr(VI).
KeywordsZero-valent iron nanoparticle Characterization Remediation Contaminants Reaction kinetics Humic acid Environment EHS
Thanks are due to the Director, Indian Institute of Toxicology Research, Lucknow, for his keen interest in the preparation of this manuscript. The financial support provided by CSIR Network Project (NWP-17) and Uttar Pradesh Council of Science and Technology is also acknowledged. This is IITR publication No. 2918.
- Cheryl P, Susan MB (2000) Reflections on hexavalent chromium: health hazards of an industrial heavyweight. Environ Health Perspect 108:48–58Google Scholar
- Cotton FA, Wilkinson G, Murillo CA, Bochmann M (1999) Advanced inorganic chemistry. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- Lien HI, Elliott DW, San YP, Zhang WX (2006) Recent progress in zero-valent iron nanoparticles for groundwater remediation. J Environ Eng Manag 16:371–380Google Scholar
- Sparks DL (1995) Environmental soil chemistry. Academic Press, San DiegoGoogle Scholar
- U.S. EPA Environmental Response Team (2000) Standard Operating Procedures SOP-2012, Soil samplingGoogle Scholar