Highlighting the mechanisms of the titanate nanotubes to titanate nanoribbons transformation
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Titanate nanorods, nanoribbons, and nanofibers synthesized by hydrothermal treatment are being investigated by several groups. Similar to titanate nanotubes, with average diameter of 9 nm, there is a strong controversy regarding the composition and microscopic formation mechanism of these non-hollow nanostructures (nanoribbons). In this article, we report the synthesis and characterization of the titanate nanostructures by exploiting some aspects that were not exploited so far. By using X-ray diffraction, FT-infrared and Raman spectroscopies and electron microscopy, we have studied the intermediate structure and morphology between nanotubes and the non-hollow nanostructures. Our findings give further evidence that the transformation of nanotubes into non-hollow nanostructures is induced by a sequence of both oriented attachment and Ostwald rippening cooperative mechanisms.
KeywordsTitanate nanostructures Vibrational spectroscopies X-ray diffraction Electron microscopy One-dimensional nanostructures
Financial support from the Brazilian funding agencies CNPq, CAPES, FUNCAP, FAPEPI and FAPESP is gratefully acknowledged. The authors are indebted to Dr. Eduardo Padrón Hernández (UFPE, Brazil) for his assistance with the TEM images and to CETENE-Brazil. This is a contribution from Institute of Science, Technology and Innovation on Functional Complex Materials (Inomat) and INCT NanoBioSimes. BCV and AAH acknowledge CASADINHO program (CNPq 620238/2008–9). AGSF and OLA acknowledge PROCAD program (CAPES 068/2007) for partial support. AGSF acknowledge CNPq grant 306335/2007–7.