Journal of Nanoparticle Research

, Volume 13, Issue 5, pp 1841–1853 | Cite as

Enhanced mechanical strength of hydroxyapatite nanorods reinforced with polyethylene

  • A. Joseph Nathanael
  • D. Mangalaraj
  • P. Chi Chen
  • N. Ponpandian
Research Paper


Hydroxyapatite (HAp) nanostructures may be an advanced candidate in biomedical applications for an apatite substitute of bone and teeth than other form of HAp. In contrast, well-defined size and shape control in synthesizing HAp nanostructures is always difficult. In this study, hydroxyapatite nanorods (HAp NRs) were prepared by simple hydrothermal method with controlling the reaction time without using any surfactant or templating agents. The nanostructure clearly depicts the growth stages of the HAp NRs by increasing the reaction time. The synthesized HAp has the rod like morphology with uniform size distribution with the aspect ratio of about 8–10. Transmission electron microscopic (TEM) and high resolution TEM (HRTEM) images show that the growth direction of the HAp is parallel to the (001) plane. The interplanar distances measured in segments (fringes) of the HRTEM micrograph were ~0.35 nm, corresponding to the interplanar spacing of the (002) plane of the hexagonal HAp. X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements indicate that the improved crystallinity of the HAp by increasing the reaction time. The mechanical studies reveal that the improved tensile strength and the abrasion resistance are observed for the HAp nanorods reinforcing with high molecular weight polyethylene (HMWPE).


Nanorods Hydroxyapatite Polyethylene TEM Mechanical properties Biocompatible implants Nanomedicine 



One of the authors AJN gratefully acknowledges the financial support from the Ministry of Higher Education, Taiwan, through Taiwan-India Collaborative Research Project. The authors also thank Mr. Wu Jun Jie and Mr. Dann Yu for their help in taking FESEM and TEM analysis. We are also indebted to Centre for EMO Materials and Nanotechnology, National Taipei University and Technology for Mechanical studies.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. Joseph Nathanael
    • 1
  • D. Mangalaraj
    • 2
  • P. Chi Chen
    • 3
  • N. Ponpandian
    • 2
  1. 1.Thin Film and Nanomaterials Laboratory, Department of PhysicsBharathiar UniversityCoimbatoreIndia
  2. 2.Department of Nanoscience and TechnologyBharathiar UniversityCoimbatoreIndia
  3. 3.Department of Chemical and Materials EngineeringLunghwa University of Science and TechnologyTaoyuanTaiwan ROC

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