Journal of Nanoparticle Research

, Volume 12, Issue 4, pp 1307–1318 | Cite as

Permanent magnetism in phosphine- and chlorine-capped gold: from clusters to nanoparticles

  • Miguel A. Muñoz-MárquezEmail author
  • Estefanía Guerrero
  • Asunción Fernández
  • Patricia Crespo
  • Antonio Hernando
  • Raquel Lucena
  • José C. Conesa
Research Paper


Magnetometry results have shown that gold NPs (∼2 nm in size) protected with phosphine and chlorine ligands exhibit permanent magnetism. When the NPs size decreases down to the subnanometric size range, e.g. undecagold atom clusters, the permanent magnetism disappears. The near edge structure of the X-ray absorption spectroscopy data points out that charge transfer between gold and the capping system occurs in both cases. These results strongly suggest that nearly metallic Au bonds are also required for the induction of a magnetic response. Electron paramagnetic resonance observations indicate that the contribution to magnetism from eventual iron impurities can be disregarded.


Gold clusters Gold nanoparticles EPR spectroscopy SQUID magnetometry Ferromagnetic behaviour 



The authors would like to acknowledge the support of the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility and BM29 beamline staff. This research has been supported by the Spanish Ministry of Science ‘Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación (MICINN)’ (Strategic Action NAN2004-09125-C07) and the Andalusian Government ‘Junta de Andalucía’ (Excellence Project P06-FQM-02254 and P09-FQM-4554, group TEP127). M.A. Muñoz-Márquez thanks the Spanish Research Council ‘Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC)’ I3P programme, E. Guerrero acknowledges the MICINN for financial support and R. Lucena thanks CSIC for a PhD grant.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Miguel A. Muñoz-Márquez
    • 1
    Email author
  • Estefanía Guerrero
    • 1
  • Asunción Fernández
    • 1
  • Patricia Crespo
    • 2
    • 3
  • Antonio Hernando
    • 2
    • 3
  • Raquel Lucena
    • 4
  • José C. Conesa
    • 4
  1. 1.Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Sevilla (CSIC-US)SevillaSpain
  2. 2.Instituto de Magnetismo Aplicado (UCM-ADIF-CSIC)Las Rozas, MadridSpain
  3. 3.Departamento de Física de MaterialesUCMMadridSpain
  4. 4.Instituto de Catálisis y Petroleoquímica (CSIC)MadridSpain

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