Biosynthesis of gold and silver nanoparticles by natural precursor clove and their functionalization with amine group
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We report a simple and cost effective way for synthesis of metallic nanoparticles (Au and Ag) using natural precursor clove. Au and Ag nanoparticles have been synthesized by reducing the aqueous solution of AuCl4 and AgNO3 with clove extract. One interesting aspect here is that reduction time is quite small (few minutes instead of hours as compared to other natural precursors). We synthesized gold and silver nanoparticles of different shape and size by varying the ratio of AuCl4 and AgNO3 with respect to clove extract, where the dominant component is eugenol. The evolution of Au and Ag nanoparticles from the reduction of different ratios of AuCl4 and AgNO3 with optimised concentration of the clove extract has been evaluated through monitoring of surface plasmon behaviour as a function of time. The reduction of AuCl4 and AgNO3 by eugenol is because of the inductive effect of methoxy and allyl groups which are present at ortho and para positions of proton releasing –OH group as two electrons are released from one molecule of eugenol. This is followed by the formation of resonating structure of the anionic form of eugenol. The presence of methoxy and allyl groups has been confirmed by FTIR. To the best of our knowledge, use of clove as reducing agent, the consequent very short time (minutes instead of hours and without any scavenger) and the elucidation of mechanism of reduction based on FTIR analysis has not been attempted earlier.
KeywordsAu nanoparticles Ag nanoparticles Clove extract Eugenol Functionalization Nanobiotechnology
The authors are extremely grateful to Prof. C. N. R. Rao, Prof. A. S. K. Sinha (Chemical Engineering, IT-BHU), Ashish Singh (Department of Chemistry, BHU), Kumari Bhoomika and Samantha Pyngrope (Department of Bio-Chemistry, BHU) for their encouragements and fruitful discussions. The authors acknowledge with gratitude the financial support from DST: UNANST, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), University Grant Commission (UGC) and Ministry of New and Renewable Energy, New Delhi, India.
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